Education and training
In order to fulfil its fundamental and enduring purpose, the Alliance must maintain the capabilities to prevent, detect, deter and defend against any threat of aggression. For this reason, NATO conducts education and training programmes to increase cohesion, effectiveness and readiness of its multinational forces. Furthermore, NATO assists partner countries in their education and training reform efforts.
- Since its inception in 1949, NATO has been engaging in education and training activities, which have expanded geographically and institutionally over time.
- The establishment of Allied Command Transformation (ACT) in 2002 is testimony of NATO’s resolve to boost education and training. ACT is entirely dedicated to leading the transformation of NATO’s military structure, forces, capabilities and doctrine, including through exercise and training design and management.
- ACT has a holistic approach to education and training: it provides unity of effort and helps identify gaps and avoid duplication, while ensuring greater effectiveness and efficiency through global programming. These efforts are complementary to national programmes.
- Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR) provides strategic-level guidance and sets the priorities and requirements for NATO Education, Training, Exercises and Evaluation (ETEE).
- NATO’s education and training programmes help to improve “interoperability” of multinational forces, i.e. their ability to work together.
- The Alliance is committed to effective cooperation and coordination with partner countries and international organisations, such as the United Nations, the European Union and the African Union
NATO’s education and training activities support the continuing process of transformation. Through the constant adaptation of its courses, training events and the introduction of new concepts and capabilities, NATO is using its exercises as a venue for ensuring the Alliance’s ability to respond to emerging security challenges. In this respect, NATO’s activity has four core dimensions: education, individual and collective training, exercises and their respective evaluation.
Throughout its education programmes, NATO intends to enhance individual knowledge and skills, and to develop competencies to confront a variety of challenges.
Individual training activities focus on the development of abilities necessary to perform tasks and duties, therefore seeking a response for predictable situations. The acquired knowledge is further developed through practical application in the framework of collective training.
Exercises take training a step further by testing acquired knowledge during scenario-based live or computer-assisted simulations. They may involve a large number of participants from different countries. Exercising is paramount for maintaining, testing and evaluating the readiness and interoperability of Allies, partners and non-NATO entities.
Allies and partner countries demonstrate their commitment to supporting the implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 and related Resolutions by taking actions to promote the Women, Peace and Security agenda also through education and training.
1. Organisation of training in NATO
Collective education and training has been ongoing since the inception of the Alliance in 1949. Over time, it has expanded both geographically and institutionally to become an integral part of NATO’s ability to provide security.
As a priority, NATO is ensuring that its commands and multinational forces remain ready, responsive, adaptable and interoperable, despite differences in tactics, doctrine, training, structures and language.
There are a number of organisations through which NATO education and training is implemented. Some operate under the direction of the Alliance and others are external, but complementary to Alliance structures.
Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE)
Allied Command Operations (ACO), located at SHAPE, plays an important role in the field of education and training. It develops and maintains forces standards; provides guidance on exercise programmes and their evaluation; identifies requirements related to training and force development capabilities. ACO and ACT manage the education, training, exercise and evaluation process.
Allied Command Transformation
Allied Command Transformation (ACT) was created as part of the reorganisation of NATO’s Command Structure in 2002. This represented an important step for improving readiness and interoperability through the coordination of education and individual training, with collective training and exercises. This Strategic Command, located in Norfolk, Virginia, United States, holds lead responsibility for directing NATO schools as well as for the development of joint education, individual training, and associated policy and doctrine between NATO and Partnership Training and Education Centres. Since July 2012, ACT has also been given the responsibility of managing collective training and exercises based on ACOs’ requirements.
Starting from specific requirements and analyses, ACT identifies and develops the most appropriate education and training solution for every discipline. To this extent, annual conferences keep the disciplines aligned with the ever-evolving requirements, and guarantee responsive and flexible education and training cycles. Once the solutions are defined, delivery of courses, training and exercises is synchronised with all stakeholders.
An integrated force under centralised command
Even in the early years of the Alliance, NATO forces conducted joint training1 to strengthen their ability to practise collective defence. Following the outbreak of the Korean War, the Allies understood the importance of an integrated force under centralised command. This was materialised by the appointment of the first Supreme Allied Commander Europe, US General Dwight D. Eisenhower, in December 1950.
NATO education and training facilities
Below are listed seven education and training facilities currently in place. The last three are under the direct control of Allied Command Transformation:
- The NATO Defense College (NDC) in Rome, Italy, is NATO’s primary strategic-level educational facility and includes areas of study such as trends in the international security environment and their potential effects on NATO countries. It provides training for senior commanders.
- The NATO School in Oberammergau (NSO), Germany, is the primary operational-level training centre for students. Operational-level training focuses on joint planning of NATO operations, operations planning, defence planning, logistics, communications, civil emergency planning, and civil-military cooperation.
- The NATO Maritime Interdiction Operational Training Centre (NMIOTC) in Souda Bay, Greece, conducts theoretical and practical training, including simulation, for NATO forces in surface, sub-surface, aerial surveillance, and special operations activities.
- The NATO Communications and Information Systems School (NCISS) in Latina, Italy, provides cost-effective, highly developed formal training to personnel (military and civilian) from NATO and non-NATO countries for the efficient operation and maintenance of NATO communications and information systems.
- The Joint Warfare Centre (JWC) in Stavanger, Norway, provides NATO's training focal point for full-spectrum joint operational-level warfare.
- The Joint Force Training Centre (JFTC) in Bydgoszcz, Poland, supports training for NATO and partner forces to improve joint and combined tactical interoperability. The JFTC conducts joint training for tactical-level command posts and staffs in support of tactical-level commanders.
- The Joint Analysis and Lessons Learned Centre (JALLC) in Lisbon, Portugal is NATO’s lead agency for the analysis of operations, training and experiments, and for the collection and dissemination of lessons learned. The JALLC deploys project teams worldwide, delivering analysis support to NATO at the strategic and operational levels.
NATO education and training providers
These are entities that have a relationship with NATO, but are typically administered by sponsor countries, national authorities or civil organisations. They are open to participation by personnel from member and partner countries and may sometimes welcome individuals coming from other organisations.
- Centres of Excellence
The Centres of Excellence are nationally or multinationally sponsored entities that provide high-quality expertise and experience to the benefit of the Alliance, especially in support of transformation. They provide opportunities to enhance training and education, assist in doctrine development, identify lessons learned, improve interoperability and capabilities, and test and validate concepts through experimentation. There are 24 Centres of Excellence that offer specialised courses to military and civilian personnel within their field of expertise.
- Partnership Training and Education Centres
Partnership Training and Education Centres (PTECs) are a global network of educational and training establishments promoting collaborative initiatives and high-quality instruction to enhance capacity-building, interoperability and a comprehensive understanding of wider security issues.
- Partnership for Peace Consortium of Defense Academies and Security Studies Institutes
The PfP Consortium - an Austrian-German-Swiss-US initiative - was established in 1999 to help promote education in security-related topics by facilitating cooperation between both civilian and military institutions in NATO and partner countries in support of NATO priorities such as defence institution building and defence reform.
Other education and training facilities
Organisations that are not directly related to NATO may support the Alliance in its education and training activities. These facilities can come from national, multinational and non-governmental organisations, such as military schools and universities.
2. Education and training in NATO-led operations
NATO’s efforts to project stability to crisis areas go beyond deploying troops. They include education and training to help partners develop security institutions and provide for their own security.
NATO is currently conducting Resolute Support, a non-combat mission which provides training, advice and assistance to Afghan security forces and institutions. Resolute Support was launched on 1 January 2015 and its key functions include supporting planning, programming and budgeting; assuring transparency, accountability and oversight; supporting the adherence to the principles of rule of law and good governance; supporting the establishment and sustainment of processes such as force generation, recruiting, training, managing and development of personnel.
An important aspect of NATO’s engagement in Afghanistan is assisting the country in developing its security institutions and forces. The Alliance deploys Tactical Advice and Assistance Teams to Afghan National Defence and Security Forces units at various levels of command.
On 20 November 2010, NATO and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan signed a Declaration on an Enduring Partnership. This Enduring Partnership is intended to provide long-term political and practical support to Afghanistan as it rebuilds its security institutions and assumes full responsibility for its own security. It includes a series of agreed programmes and activities undertaken as part of the ongoing cooperation between NATO and Afghanistan. This includes the Professional Military Education Programme for Afghanistan, which aims to further develop Afghan institutions, as well as other initiatives such as a counter-narcotics training pilot project.
On the occasion of NATO’s Warsaw Summit in 2016, the Alliance and the Afghan authorities reaffirmed their mutual commitment to ensuring long-term security and stability. NATO and its operational partners will continue to sustain the Resolute Support mission through continuous delivery of training, advice and assistance to the Afghan security institutions and forces.
The NATO Training and Capacity Building programme in Iraq began in January 2017 and aims at increasing Iraq’s training capacity in the medium and long term. It includes courses on countering improvised explosive devices, explosive ordnance disposal and de mining; civil-military planning support to operations; civil emergency planning; training in military medicine; technical maintenance of Soviet-era military equipment; and reform of the Iraqi security institutions.
NATO-Iraq relations are underpinned by an Individual Partnership and Cooperation Programme (September 2012), which provides a framework for political dialogue and tailored cooperation in mutually agreed areas, and a Defence Capacity Building Package for Iraq (2015).
NATO retains a presence in Iraq, which includes a NATO core team and rotating mobile training teams. The core team is a mix of permanent, military and civilian NATO personnel; the mobile training teams deploy as required to support specific training and capacity-building activities. /p>
NATO is currently planning for a potential training mission in Iraq aimed at training Iraqi instructors and developing military schools. The objective is to help Iraqi forces fight terrorism, stabili se their country and prevent the re-emergence of ISIS .
- Joint training means forces from two or more military departments working under a single command and combined forces are forces from different countries working under a single command.
After the Cold War, NATO members reduced the numbers of military personnel, equipment and bases and transformed their forces to meet different needs. Many partner countries are still going through this process, often with limited resources and expertise.
NATO works with partners from Central and Eastern Europe, Central Asia, the Caucasus, the Mediterranean, the Gulf region and individual partners across the globe. The main frameworks for cooperation are Partnership for Peace (PfP), the Mediterranean Dialogue (MD) and the Istanbul Cooperation Initiative (ICI).
NATO is using education to support defence institutional reform in partner countries. Initially, NATO’s education and training programmes focused on increasing interoperability between NATO and partner forces. They were later expanded to provide the means for members and partners to collaborate on how to build, develop and reform educational institutions in the security, defence and military domains.
At the 2004 Istanbul Summit, Alliance leaders elevated the MD initiative to a genuine partnership to include increased participation in exercises and individual training at NATO institutions. At the same time, the ICI was introduced, which paved the way for cooperation between NATO and countries from the broader Middle East in areas such as education and training.
In February 2005, the North Atlantic Council started developing the Education and Training for Defence Reform (EfR) initiative. EfR helps educators incorporate principles linked to defence institution building into their curricula. Since the courses are aimed at civil servants and other persons participating in defence institution building, they contribute indirectly to improving defence reform.
At the 2014 Wales Summit, Allies endorsed the Partnership Interoperability Initiative, launching the Interoperability Platform. This widened opportunities for partner participation in NATO exercises, with the aim of increasing interoperability and preparedness for crisis management situations.
Recognising the importance of a strengthened strategic partnership, European Union members and NATO Allies - at the 2016 Warsaw Summit - decided to find ways to better provide security in Europe and beyond. In this regard, the Joint Declaration by the President of the European Council, the President of the European Commission and the Secretary General of NATO underlines the importance of stepping up coordination on exercises.
NATO training opens up to partners
Over the last decades, the Alliance has developed structured partnerships, including with international organisations. To this extent, the education and training activities, as well as the possibility to exercise together, enhance the ability to give coherent and effective responses to complex security challenges.
- Partnership for Peace programme
When NATO invited former Warsaw Pact countries, former Soviet Republics and non-member western European countries to join the PfP programme in 1994, participating countries committed themselves to increasing interoperability with NATO forces. This opened the way for joint training and marked the beginning of NATO’s support for defence reform.
NATO training institutions soon followed suit. The first officers’ course for partner countries was conducted in October 1994 at the NATO Communications and Information Systems School. Similarly, the NATO Defense College integrated PfP issues into its Senior Course.
- Mediterranean Dialogue
The MD was created in 1994, initially as a forum for political dialogue. In 1997, at a meeting in Sintra, Portugal, the Alliance decided to open selected military training activities to countries participating in this initiative (currently seven countries: Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia).
- Istanbul Cooperation Initiative
The Istanbul Cooperation Initiative (ICI) was launched during the Istanbul Summit in 2004, as a means of engaging in practical security cooperation activities with countries throughout the broader Middle East region. The ICI offers both cooperation with interested countries in training and education activities and participation in NATO exercises, as well as in other areas. To date, four countries have joined the initiative: Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates.
- African Union
NATO continues to support the African Union (AU) in its peacekeeping missions on the African continent. Since June 2007, NATO has assisted the AU Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) by providing capacity-building support, as well as expert training support to the African Standby Forces (ASF), all at the AU’s request.
Tailor-made defence education
The Defence Education Enhancement Programme (DEEP) is a vehicle for reform, providing tailored, practical support to individual countries in developing and reforming their professional military education institutions. Through faculty development, teaching curricula development and peer-to-peer consultations, DEEP provides a platform to foster defence capacity-building, cooperative capability development and standardization, and promotes interoperability of processes and methodologies to enhance democratic institutions.
A vast network of institutions and individuals support these projects on a voluntary basis, for instance the NATO Defense College, the NATO School Oberammergau, the US Army War College, the Canadian Defence Academy, the National Defence University of Poland, the National Defence University of Romania, the Czech University of Defence, the Slovak Armed Forces Academy, the Geneva Centre for Security Policy, the George C. Marshall Center in Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany) and the Partnership for Peace Consortium of Defense Academies and Security Studies Institutes.
Advice and expertise
NATO shares its expertise in the field of defence capabilities with partners. It does this through the Planning and Review Process (PARP), a voluntary mechanism that helps identify partner forces and capabilities and assesses the implementation of defence-related objectives, established on a case-by-case basis under different cooperation packages.
Countries with special relationships with NATO can have additional mechanisms for exchanging advice and expertise. For instance, the NATO-Ukraine Joint Working Group on Defence Reform provides a forum through which consultation can take place on initiatives as diverse as civil-military relations, defence planning, policy, strategy and national security concepts. Moreover, NATO-led multinational teams of experts can visit partner countries to address the education and training requirements listed in the Individual Partnership Action Plans of the countries concerned.
Additionally, understanding the wide range of terrorist challenges posing a direct threat to international stability and the security of Alliance populations, NATO formally joined the Global Coalition to Defeat ISIS in May 2017. Building on its experience in working together and with partners in NATO-led operations, training and exercises, the Allies are enhancing the level of cooperation with regard to preventing, mitigating and responding effectively to terrorist attacks, including through efforts to project stability.
Courses, seminars and workshops
NATO partners are able to participate in an array of NATO education activities – courses, roundtables, seminars and workshops.
An initiative for the Mediterranean and the Middle East
A dedicated Middle East Faculty has been established at the NATO Defense College in Rome. The Faculty has a unique nature, being focused on curriculum development, academic programme delivery and outreach activities. Furthermore, it conducts research on the international security environment and on contemporary strategic issues of interest, with the emphasis on the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region.
With the aim of increasing outreach and shared understanding of regional security issues, the Middle East faculty organises both the NATO Regional Cooperation Course and the Senior Executive Regional Conference, with the attendance of Allies, partners and NATO personnel.
Collective education and training has been ongoing since the inception of the Alliance in 1949. Over time, it has expanded to become an integral part of NATO’s ability to provide security. It has expanded geographically, with NATO working with a larger number of countries, and institutionally, with the creation of ACT, a strategic command entirely dedicated to leading transformation throughout the Alliance.
In the early years of the Alliance, NATO forces conducted joint training to strengthen their ability to practise collective defence. In other words, education and training was conducted to ensure that forces were prepared in the case of an attack.
An integrated force under centralised command
An integrated force under centralised command was called for as early as September 1950, following the outbreak of the Korean War in June 1950. The first Supreme Allied Commander Europe, US General Dwight D. Eisenhower, was appointed in December 1950. Following this appointment, national forces were put under centralised command.
The Alliance’s first exercises
The Alliance’s first exercises were held in the autumn of 1951. During 1953, there were approximately 100 exercises of various kinds conducted by NATO. From this point on, NATO forces began to gain cohesion.
Education for individuals
Individual education soon followed. The need for a specialised setting to explore issues unique to the Alliance was first recognised by General Eisenhower in April 1951. The NATO Defense College was inaugurated later that year, on 19 November, and was transferred from Paris, France to Rome, Italy in 1966, where it is still located.
The NATO Communications and Information Systems School was established in 1959, when a civil contractor began to train a small number of NATO personnel on what would become NATO's “ACE HIGH Communications System”. On 2 May of the same year, the NATO Undersea Research Centre in La Spezia, Italy was commissioned. During the 2002 reform process, this centre was moved to the agency structure of the Alliance as an organisational element linked to research. In 1971, the Military Committee established the NATO Training Group. The NATO Training Group met for many years in joint session with the Euro-training sub-group, which was set up to improve multinational training arrangements between European countries (its responsibilities were passed on to NATO in 1993). The NATO Training Group was formally transferred from the Military Committee to ACT in 2004. Its principal aim is to improve interoperability among Allies and, additionally, between the forces of partner countries.
In 1975, the NATO School in Oberammergau, Germany received its charter and present name. For almost 25 years, its principal focus was on issues relating to collective defence.
More recently in 2003, the NATO Maritime Interdiction Operational Training Centre was established in Souda Bay, Greece to conduct training for NATO forces in surface, sub-surface, aerial surveillance and special operations activities.
NATO training opens to partners
Partnership for Peace countries
When NATO invited former Warsaw Pact countries, former Soviet Republics and non-member western European countries to join the PfP programme in 1994, participating countries committed themsel