Environment – NATO's stake
NATO recognises that it faces many environmental challenges, including the risks posed by climate change. In particular, the Alliance is working to reduce the environmental impact of military activities, to adapt and become more resilient in response to security challenges posed by environmental change. In March 2021, NATO Foreign Ministers endorsed NATO’s Climate Change and Security Agenda. Allied Leaders also endorsed NATO’s Climate Change and Security Action Plan at the Brussels Summit in June.
Source: German Armed Forces/Patrik Bransmöller
The Alliance first recognised environmental challenges in 1969, when it established the Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society (CCMS). Until its merger with the NATO Science for Peace and Security (SPS) Programme in 2006, the CCMS provided a unique forum for NATO and its partner countries to share knowledge and experience on social, health and environmental matters, both in the civilian and military sectors.
Over the years, Allied countries have established several NATO expert working groups to address environmental challenges from various angles.
NATO's current activities related to the natural environment include:
- preparing for and responding to natural and man-made disasters;
- addressing the impact of climate change;
- educating military officers on all aspects of environmental challenges;
- supporting partner countries in building local capabilities;
- enhancing energy efficiency and fossil fuel independence;
- building environmentally friendly infrastructures;
- protecting the environment from damaging effects of military operations;
- promoting environmentally friendly management practices in training areas and during operations; and
- adapting military assets and capabilities to extreme climate conditions.
All these activities fall under two broad categories:
- Environmental security: Addressing security challenges emanating from the physical and natural environment.
- Environmental protection: Protecting the physical and natural environment from the harmful and detrimental impact of military activities.
Based on a broad definition of security that recognises the importance of political, economic, social and environmental factors, NATO is addressing security challenges emanating from the environment. This includes extreme weather conditions, depletion of natural resources, and pollution – factors that can ultimately lead to humanitarian disasters, regional tensions and violence.
The Alliance is looking closely at how to best address environmental risks to security in general as well as those that directly impact military activities. For example, environmental and other factors can affect energy supplies to both populations and military operations, making energy security a major topic of concern. In particular, the risk of space weather phenomena to energy security is becoming a matter of increasing concern.
Helping partner countries clean up ageing and dangerous stockpiles of weapons, ammunition and unexploded remnants of war that pose a risk to people and the environment is yet another area of work.
NATO is currently conducting these initiatives via its Science for Peace and Security (SPS) programme, the Euro-Atlantic Disaster Response Coordination Centre (EADRCC) and Partnership for Peace Trust Fund projects. It is considering enhancing its efforts in this area, with a focus on civil emergencies, energy efficiency and renewable power, and on consulting with relevant international organisations and experts on NATO’s stake in climate change.
Building international cooperation
Since 1969, NATO’s SPS Programme has supported cooperative activities that tackle environmental security issues, including those that are related to defence, in NATO countries. Since the SPS Programme opened up to partner countries in the 1990s, partners listed environmental security as a top priority, requesting NATO’s support for cooperative activities to address those issues that threaten the security of their country and beyond.
In order to better coordinate its activities, NATO joined five other international agencies under the Environment and Security (ENVSEC) Initiative1 to address environmental issues that threaten security in four vulnerable regions (Southeast Europe, Eastern Europe, South Caucasus and Central Asia). As a first step, ENVSEC facilitated regional meetings with relevant stakeholders (experts, non-governmental organisations authorities, governmental authorities and international donors) to consult and agree on regional maps highlighting priority issues that are a threat to security. As a second step, ENVSEC raised funds to address the identified issues. The NATO SPS Programme mainly supported capability-building through projects that helped NATO partner countries with equipment, travel, training and stipends. (For more information visit www. envsec.rec.org)
Boosting emergency response
The Alliance is also actively engaged in coordinating civil preparedness and civil emergency response to environmental disasters. It does this principally through its Euro-Atlantic Disaster Response Coordination Centre (EARDCC), which was launched following the earthquake disaster in Turkey and Greece at the end of the 1990s.
With the aim to increase the understanding of the potential military role in disaster relief, NATO organised consultations and scenario-building exercises involving military and civilian experts, supported in part by the SPS Programme.
Helping partners reduce environmental hazards through disarmament
Through NATO’s SPS Programme and Trust Fund projects, the Alliance helps partner countries reduce their aging weapons stockpiles, clean up deteriorating rocket fuel, clear land contaminated by unexploded remnants of war, and safely store ammunition. While the central aim is to help post-Soviet countries disarm and reform their militaries, these projects also reduce the risks posed by these dangerous materials to the environment and the populations in surrounding areas.
Energy security – critical energy infrastructure protection
With increasingly unpredictable natural disasters, such as earthquakes, severe floods and storms, that cause disruptions to infrastructure, environmental factors have a growing potential to affect energy security – a challenge NATO is becoming increasingly aware of. Most NATO members and partners rely on energy supplies from abroad, sent through pipelines and cables that cross many borders. Allies and partners, therefore, need to work together to develop ways of reducing the threat of disruptions, including those caused by environmental events.
Allies agreed to consult on the most immediate risks in the field of energy security, share information, advance international and regional cooperation, develop consequence management, and help protect critical infrastructure. (For more please visit the topic page “NATO’s role in energy security”.)
Projects that focus on the link between energy infrastructure and environmental security have been supported by the SPS Programme since the early 2000s. An example is the multi-year project “Chernobyl Dust Model” to help Ukraine to develop a realistic 3D model of the radioactive dust that is leaking from the damaged sarcophagus at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power site. This will not only increase the safety of the workers at the New Safety Confinement, but also help international experts understand the challenges of measurements and monitoring of contaminated areas.
Energy efficiency in the military (Smart Energy) and innovative technology
Recognising the increasing need of fuel in operations, which can cause severe security challenges for fuel convoys and armed forces, NATO started in 2011 a Smart Energy initiative that brought together NATO stakeholders and national experts from the public and private sector. NATO Heads of State and Government declared in Wales in 2014 that NATO will “[...] continue to work towards significantly improving the energy efficiency of our military forces, and in this regard we note the Green Defence Framework.”
Diversification of energy sources can also enhance mission endurance and operational effectiveness. By using a variety of energy sources, including ‘smart’ grids that exploit renewable energy and energy storage technologies, front line operations can maintain the required levels of effectiveness for longer periods without the need to rely on conventional fuels. In addition, such systems as well as hydrogen fuel cells can provide additional benefits such as reduced noise and heat signatures, and contribute to the blueprint for military systems, platforms and capability generation.
NATO also continues to explore opportunities for the use of relevant technologies in capability development, such as how artificial intelligence could be used to manage energy in military systems and platforms, or how advanced engineering can assist with power and propulsion in the most energy-efficient way.
For more information on “Smart Energy” and NATO’s work on incorporating innovative technologies and approaches within military capability, please visit the NATO LibGuide on Smart Energy.
Responding to climate change
With the effects of a changing climate becoming ever more visible, expectations regarding NATO’s efforts to address its implications are also growing. Climate change is widely recognised as a threat multiplier which requires a re-assessment of the impact on operations and missions. In addition, there are second- and third- order consequences involving famine and drought leading to loss of land and livelihoods, as well as fresh water management/water scarcity, health issues, biodiversity loss and demographic challenges Hence, climate change will increasingly affect where the military is likely to operate, under what conditions, and in which type of mission: conflict resolution and peace-building, or humanitarian assistance and disaster response.
Climate change affects the current and future operating environment, and the military will need to ensure its operational effectiveness in increasingly harsh conditions. For instance, increases to ambient temperatures coupled with changing air density can have a detrimental impact on available helicopter performance and air transport capability. Similarly, preventing the overheating of military aircraft and airbase installations requires an increased logistical effort and higher energy consumption. Moreover, many transport routes are located on coastal roads, which are particularly vulnerable to weather extremes. This does not only pose challenges on engineering and technology development, but also needs to be factored into operational planning scenarios.
Hence, as outlined by NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg in a ‘NATO 2030’ speech in September 2020, NATO needs to adapt its armed forces to a security environment altered by the effects of climate change. Going beyond mere adaptation, however, NATO should also seek to cut emissions of military forces. Important work has already been done in this regard (see “Smart Energy” above), demonstrating how a more sustainable and resilient military need not come at the expense of military effectiveness. Indeed, the use of more sustainable technologies can enhance mission endurance and operational effectiveness. To this end, Secretary General Stoltenberg suggested to “consider voluntary targets for Allies to progressively cut those emissions”. In taking forward these and other proposals, Allies may build on the 2014 Green Defence Framework.
In March 2021, NATO Foreign Ministers endorsed NATO’s Climate Change and Security Agenda. Allied Heads of State and Government subsequently endorsed NATO’s Climate Change and Security Action Plan at the Brussels Summit on 14 June.
- The ENVSEC Initiative was established in 2003 by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe (REC). NATO became an associate member in 2004, through its Public Diplomacy Division.
Military activities often have an adverse effect on the environments in which they occur. Hence, part of NATO's responsibility is to protect the physical and natural environments where operations and training take place.
Accordingly, NATO member countries have adopted rules and regulations to protect the environment. NATO's measures range from safeguarding hazardous materials (including fuels and oils), treating waste water, reducing fossil fuel consumption and managing waste to putting environmental management systems in place during NATO-led activities. In line with these objectives, NATO has been facilitating the integration of environmental protection measures into all NATO-led military activities.
Policy and standards
NATO started to develop its environmental protection policy in the late 1970s, resulting in a number of guidelines and standards. At present, NATO's policy states that NATO-led forces "must strive to respect environmental principles and policies under all conditions".
Currently, two dedicated NATO groups are addressing environmental protection while promoting cooperation and standardization among NATO and partner countries, as well as among different NATO bodies and international organisations that regularly attend as observers:
- the Environmental Protection Working Group (EPWG) (under the Military Committee Joint Standardization Board, which reports to the Military Committee)
- The Specialist Team on Energy Efficiency and Environmental Protection (STEEEP) (under the Maritime Capability Group "Ship Design and Maritime Mobility", which reports through the NATO Naval Armaments Group to the Conference of National Armaments Directors).
The EPWG aims to reduce possible harmful impacts of military activities on the environment by developing NATO policies, standardization documents, guidelines and best practices in the planning and implementation of operations and exercises.
The STEEEP aims to integrate environmental protection and energy efficiency regulations into technical requirements and specifications for armaments, equipment and materials on ships, and for the ship to shore interface in the Allied and partner nations' naval forces.
Decades of activities by expert groups paved the way for the overarching policy document MC-469 on "NATO Military Principles and Policies for Environmental Protection", agreed by the NATO Military Committee in 2003 and updated in 2011. This document describes the responsibilities of military commanders for environmental protection during the preparation and execution of military activities. Further, it recognises the need for "a harmonisation of environmental principles and policies for all NATO-led military activities". It also instructs NATO commanders to apply "best practicable and feasible environmental protection measures", thus aiming to reduce the environmental impact caused by military activity. MC-469 has been complemented with several other NATO Environmental Protection Standardization Agreements (STANAGs) and Allied Joint Environmental Protection Publications (AJEPP), all focused on protecting the environment during NATO-led military activities. These include a Joint NATO Doctrine for Environmental Protection during NATO-led Military Activities; Environmental Protection Best Practices and Standards for Military Camps in NATO-led Military Activities; and Best Environmental Protection Practices for Sustainability of Military Training Areas.
In order to ensure compliance with such standards, forces must receive appropriate environmental protection training. While such training is primarily a national responsibility, it is NATO's ambition to provide common environmental protection and energy efficiency education to Allies' forces. It is necessary to embed environmental protection awareness into the daily routine of military personnel and increase their personal responsibility in this field. To advance this objective, NATO has designated staff officers for the implementation of environmental protection at strategic, operational and tactical levels. Moreover, NATO School Oberammergau and the Military Engineering Centre of Excellence provide environmental protection courses and instruction as part of their curriculum.
Research and Development
NATO's Science and Technology Organization (STO) promotes and conducts scientific research on military-specific technical challenges, some of which are related to environmental issues. To this end, STO technical/scientific sub-committees, composed of experts from NATO and its member nations, look for "greener solutions" by conducting studies and research resulting in scientific reports. STO's activities include noise reduction and "greener ammunition". The STO's Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation (CMRE), located in La Spezia, Italy, conducts research to quantify the impact of the environment on operations, and vice versa. One extensive CMRE study resulted in a better understanding on how marine mammals can be affected by sonar systems. Based on the results, NATO developed the Code of Conduct for the Use of Active Sonar to Ensure the Protection of Marine Mammals within the Framework of Alliance Maritime Activities (MC-0547). STO's collaborative network is supported by the Collaboration Support Office, located in Paris, France. More information can be found at www.sto.nato.int, www.cso.nato.int and www.cmre.nato.int.
Within the context of NATO's Science for Peace and Security Programme, environmental protection experts across NATO and partner nations have been active in the development of policy and technical solutions to the reduction of the environmental and energy footprint on NATO-led activities. One such advanced research workshop consisted of the development of a NATO Camp Closure Handbook and a Sustainable Camp Model. The model enables operational planners to better understand the impact of operations on water, waste and energy consumption and provides technical solutions aimed at a reduction in the environmental and energy footprint of operations.
NATO's environmental community has been active in their cooperative efforts with other international organisations, including the United Nations and the European Union. This collaborative approach also includes discussions with industry, academia and governmental agencies.