no early progress is made on the arms control part of the double-track
decision, a number of initiatives are launched which are later to
meet with success. On 18 November 1981, President Reagan outlines
a framework for new negotiations with the Soviet Union on strategic
weapons, now to be termed Strategic Arms Reduction Talks or START
rather than SALT. For the first time, emphasis is to be placed on
reductions, as opposed to limitations on new deployments. Talks
are also to be held on Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces (INF).
Here, a zero option is proposed whereby the US would forgo its deployments
of the Pershing and Cruise missiles if the USSR withdraws the SS-20s.
of other major issues are also debated within the Alliance, including
the equitable sharing of the defence burden, particularly between
the European and American allies; improving conventional defence,
and strengthening the European pillar of the Alliance. France proposes
that the Western European Union be revitalised and used as an instrument
of cooperation between the member states within an Alliance framework.
Geneva between the United States and Soviet Union on Intermediate-range
Nuclear Forces begin on 30 November 1981, and on START on 30 June
1982. When the first Cruise components arrive in the UK on 23 November
1983, marking the start of NATO's INF deployments, the Soviet Union
walks out of the INF talks and, on 8 December, it leaves the START
negotiations without setting a date for their resumption. On 15
December, it brakes off the protracted negotiations on Mutual and
Balanced Force Reductions, which had begun in Vienna in October