Updated: 23-Aug-2001 1994

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Summary 1994


1994 sees the launching at a Summit Meeting in Brussels of a major initiative by NATO called Partnership for Peace. The invitation to join the Partnership is soon accepted by nearly 30 non-NATO countries. Seizing the opportunity to develop closer ties with the Alliance, the participating countries prepare Individual Partnership Programmes tailored to their specific needs.

A few months later a Partnership Coordination Cell is established at SHAPE, NATO's senior military command headquarters in Europe, and offices for Partner countries are opened at NATO Headquarters in Brussels. Meanwhile, efforts to strengthen the coherence of the European security and defence role in NATO are pursued. A concept known as Combined Joint Task Forces (CJTF's) is endorsed by the NATO Council. It provides for smaller, more mobile and flexible multinational forces adapted to modern needs.

In the Russian Federation, multiparty parliamentary elections are held at the end of 1993 - the first since 1917. In January of the next year, the US, Russia and Ukraine sign an agreement and assurances which will enable Ukraine to become a non-nuclear weapons state.

NATO affairs continue to be dominated by the Alliance's increasing role in the efforts of the international community to end the Yugoslav conflict. Its involvement on the side of peace is at the top of its agenda, despite the breadth and depth of the internal changes which NATO itself must undergo. Belgian Foreign Minister Claes takes over as Secretary General following the death in office of his predecessor Manfred Wrner. A year later, Claes' resignation leads to the appointment of Javier Solana, formerly Foreign Minister of Spain, to oversee the further transformation of NATO and the development of its peacekeeping responsibilities.

At the end of 1994, initial steps are taken by NATO to improve understanding and to examine scope for future cooperation with the countries of the Mediterranean area. In what will become NATO's Mediterranean Dialogue, formally instituted in February 1995, Egypt, Israel, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia, subsequently joined by Jordan and Algeria, initiate closer contacts with the Alliance.