October 1997

Chapter 14: Movement and Transportation

Movement and Transportation Policies

1404. General Policies
  1. NATO and national military and civil authorities are responsible for the development of directives, procedures and organizations for the movement and transportation of NATO forces.
  2. Movement and transportation planning to support military operations should be carried out and coordinated on a combined service and joint military/civil basis encompassing all modes of transport. Separate planning for maritime, land and air components of force packages should be avoided. NATO civil transportation experts are a valuable asset and should be included in the development of NATO contingency plans.
  3. Nations are responsible for providing sufficient movement and transportation resources for the deploy-ment, transportation for sustainment (resupply), and redeployment of their forces. However, nations should make resources available to NATO for shared use. Use of resources should be responsive to NATO's operational requirements and coordinated at the appropriate level.
  4. Movement and transportation planning and execution should be supported by standardized and harmonized procedures. This is of particular importance when crossing international borders. Furthermore, multi- or bilateral transport support agreements among nations should be developed to facilitate movements.
  5. NATO and national military authorities will be responsible for operational support planning. Movement and transportation planning for NATO operations should be prioritized and coordinated by the appropriate NATO Commander.
  6. Optimum use should be made of both military and civil transport resources, facilities, and infrastructure, including host nation support.
  7. Nations are invited to ensure that national legislation or other arrangements cater sufficiently for the acquisition of movement and transportation resources for Article 5 and non-Article 5 operations. The Senior Civil Emergency Planning Committee (SCEPC) will monitor and advise nations on the adequacy of legislation or other national measures, as appropriate, to support Alliance movement and transportation capabilities.
  8. Planning to ensure the required degree of Alliance strategic and operational mobility should consider the possibility of static or mobile prepositioning of stocks, material, and equipment in order to improve movement and transportation reaction time.
  9. Movement and transportation planning will be as specific as possible, while retaining the necessary flexibility required by NATO's Concept of Reinforcement.
  10. Appropriate NATO Commanders will review the effectiveness of military arrangements, both NATO and national, in support of the Alliance's movement and transportation requirements.
  11. Nations should assist where necessary by making available to the appropriate Commander those military transportation resources that are not committed for national requirements when requested.
  12. NATO and nations will use the Allied Deployment and Movement System (ADAMS) as the planning tool to facilitate deployment planning and transfer of information.
  13. NATO and national military authorities will ensure harmonised casualty evacuation is incorporated into movement plans.

1405. Policy on Civil Support to the Military

  1. Civil support to the military will be of critical importance in achieving the desired flexibility in support of Alliance objectives. The military will, at the appropriate level, require the close cooperation of the Alliance movement and transportation bodies of Civil Emergency Planning (CEP) to assess and define the capability, availability, and feasibility of civil transport support.
  2. NATO and nations should make arrangements for close and well structured cooperation between military and civil authorities.

1406. Policy on Military Support to Civil Operations. Military support to civil operations will be conducted using the same principles and policies as described above.

1407. Policy on Resource Acquisition

  1. Nations are primarily responsible for the provision of transportation resources. National operational support planning should involve appropriate national civil as well as military transport authorities in the acquisition process, which should extend as appropriate to both national and non-national sources. Nations should consider:
    1. Entering into bi- or multilateral agreements with other nations concerning the provision of movement and transportation resources.
    2. Making appropriate arrangements for gaining access to civil transport resources by using normal commercial practices to the maximum extent, including possible use of both non-NATO nations' transportation resources and contractual arrangements that become operative under specific conditions.
    3. Applying to the appropriate Allied Command for access to military transportation resources made available by other nations for shared use, to include any agreed arrangements for pooling of military transportation resources.
    4. Approaching the civil transportation market in a coordinated manner through NATO Headquarters, thus acquiring resources in accordance with operational priorities and minimizing national competition for resources.
    5. Making arrangements for the control or redirection of civil transportation resources, if it appears that the commercial market may be unable to meet require-ments. These may be constitutional, statutory, or contractual, and may include bi- or multilateral or Alliance arrangements.
    6. Reporting to the appropriate NATO authorities, those military and civil transportation resources which may be available for shared use.
  2. Given that civil transportation resources normally operate in market conditions, NATO and national authorities will need to continue to devise collective arrangements which ensure that suitable civil resources can be quickly and reliably obtained.
  3. The nation using a transportation resource of another nation is responsible forreimbursing the nation or agency providing that resource, if such reimbursement is required.

1408. Policy on Command and Control of Movement and Transport Resources

  1. The command and control of movement and transport resources will remain with the owning nations unless nations have made other arrangements with NATO authorities.
  2. NATO will provide mission assignment to nations, who will undertake operational command and control and detailed mission tasking of movement and trans-portation resources.

1409. Policy on Communications and Automated Data Processing (ADP) Support

  1. Interoperable, and where required, secure communications and ADP facilities are necessary to support the acquisition of movement and transportation resources and to enable appropriate planning, control and coordination.
  2. NATO and national movement and transportation authorities must continue to support development of a network of NATO and national communications systems, in order that allied and national movement and transportation staffs can communicate rapidly for planning and execution.
  3. To be viable, the communications and ADP systems must provide commanders with timely information concerning status of force deployment, availability of transportation resources, and status of the lines of communication.
  4. Linkage should exist between military and civil transportation authorities, and their related communi-cations networks.
  5. Communications and ADP support programmes concerning movement and transportation systems should be incorporated within the overall ACE Automated Command and Control Information System (ACE ACCIS) and the North Atlantic Command and Control Information System (NACCIS) architecture.
  6. Nations should continue to support the development of the ADAMS, and the establishment of an ADP network linking key movement and transport agencies within the Alliance.

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