17 July 2014

EADRCC Assistance Requests Glossary

As a supplement to the “Checklist and Non-Binding Guidelines for the Request, Reception and Provision Of International Assistance in the Event of a CBRN Incident or Natural Disaster” published by EADRCC, this glossary is intended to assist nations in the request and provision stages of international disaster relief efforts.  By examining requests for assistance from the past decade, this glossary was assembled as a comprehensive, but not necessarily definitive, list of options for nations seeking support from NATO members and partners following a disaster. 

This glossary is intended to facilitate and expedite the provision of relief efforts by standardizing the language used to describe the capabilities, commodities and equipment requested in crisis situations.  Having a common understanding of what is being requested and provided will make the international response faster and more predictable. 

In some instances, broad categories of equipment or commodities have been simplified into one or a few entries, e.g. “Pump” and “Food”.  When more specificity is needed than the list provides, requesting nations can and should explicitly ask for the assistance desired.

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W


Aerosol generator for disinfections - high-dispersion aerosol generator used to disinfect the air and surfaces, including ventilation systems, in large, high-traffic, or high infection rate facilities

Air compressor – a device (electric, diesel, or gasoline) that compresses and pressurizes air which is released on command to power pneumatic tools or perform other tasks

Air condition sets - an apparatus for ventilation and controlling humidity and temperature for a building or temporary shelter

Air heater - any of various apparatuses for heating air in a room, using electricity, wood, or liquid fuel

Air mattress - a soft plastic case that can be filled with air and used as a bed

Air mattress pump – a pump specifically for inflating air mattresses, usually electrically powered

Air transport – the transport of personnel, commodities, and equipment rapidly by air

Airplane, firefighting – fixed-wing aircraft equipped to combat wildfires with water, foams, gels, or fire retardants

Ambulance with medical equipment - a specially equipped motor vehicle for carrying sick or injured people, furnished with paramedic equipment

Antibiotics (Class, Trade, Brand; Indication) – a medicine that inhibits the growth of or destroys microorganisms; can be prophylactic to prevent infection or treatment to cure infections such as tuberculosis, bloodstream infections, and pneumonia

Anti-moulding latex – latex paint designed to control and prevent mould, mildew, fungal, and bacterial growth in building interiors

Antiseptic for human use (Betadine) – Povidone-Iodine 10% solution, used to prevent infection in cuts, scrapes and minor burns, common brand name Betadine or Pyodine

Aspirators - a small suction machine used to remove mucus and other bodily fluids from a patient; can be stationary or portable

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Bandage - a strip of fabric used especially to cover, dress, and bind up wounds

Battery – a portable source of electrical power; uses vary

Beds - a piece of furniture, including folding cots for temporary use, upon which or within which a person sleeps, rests, or stays when not well

Beds, folding – a piece of furniture which is easily collapsible and transportable for displaced persons to use for sleep or rest

Bio-agent/chemical detection kit – a kit used to detect and identify hazardous concentrations of chemical or biological agents in a large area or in a sample

Blankets - a large piece of woollen or similar material used as a bed covering or other covering for warmth and appropriate for climate of use

Boats (specify type, size) – a watercraft of any size designed for general or specific use, including transportation, search-and-rescue, or supply distribution

Boats, flat-bottomed - a boat with a flat-bottomed hull which allows it to be used in shallow bodies of water, such as rivers or floodplains, because it is less likely to ground

Boats, self-inflatable rafts – a lightweight boat constructed of flexible tubes containing pressurised gas, often collapsible to a small size and rapidly deployable as a lifeboat or search vessel

Boot covers – single-use or reusable protective covers for boots to keep dirt or contaminates from the shoes off clean surfaces

Bridging equipment, expedient/rapidly deployable – infrastructure equipment designed to quickly and temporarily enable waterway crossings; several different deployment system types and sizes

Buckets – an open container of varying size, typically plastic or metal, with a handle, used to hold and carry liquids or other materials

Bulldozer (Heavy/Medium/Light-duty) - a powerful motor vehicle with a broad upright blade at the front for clearing ground

Bus for personnel transportation - a large, high-capacity motor vehicle for carrying passengers by road

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Candles - a cylinder or block of wax or tallow with a central wick that is lit to produce light as it burns

Cardiomonitors - a piece of electronic medical equipment for continual observation of the function of the heart, portable or stationary

Cervical collar - an orthopaedic medical device used to support a patient's neck and head, often used by emergency personnel to treat those who have had traumatic head or neck injuries

Chainsaws - a mechanical cutting tool with teeth set on a chain that moves around the edge of a blade, typically powered by an internal combustion engine

Chemical toilets – a portable, temporary toilet with a moulded plastic enclosure and a holding tank filled with disinfectant instead of water

Chloramine – a chemical used in low concentrations as a disinfectant for drinking water

Chlorhexidine – a chemical used in skin disinfectants, often combined with ethanol or isopropyl alcohol, to clean the skin after an injury or before surgery

Chloride of lime – a chemical compound used for disinfecting drinking water and producing bathroom cleaners and disinfectant sprays

Cleaning Soil (Fuller's earth) - any clay material that has the capability to decolorize oil or other liquids without chemical treatment; often used to absorb oil, grease, and animal waste and decontaminate clothing from chemical agents

Clearance diver – a naval diver specializing in removing obstructions and dangers from harbours, other waterways, or flooded areas

Clothing (specify type) – any type of garment or apparel used to cover and protect persons from the elements

Containerized Housing Unit - an ISO shipping container pre-fabricated into living quarters

Cooler cases – an insulated container for keeping food, drink, or medicines cool

Cranes - a large, tall machine used for moving heavy objects, typically by suspending them from a projecting arm or beam

Crutches and wheelchairs - a chair fitted with wheels for use as a means of transport or a long stick with a crosspiece at the top used by a person who is unable to walk as a result of illness, injury, or disability.

Cushions - a pillow or pad used as a comfortable support for sitting or leaning on

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Decontamination tents – portable shelters, often pneumatic (inflatable), with multiple rooms including a high-capacity shower area used to decontaminate victims of chemical or biological attacks

Defibrillators – a portable or stationary electronic device that gives an electric shock to the heart to help re-establish normal contraction rhythms

Dehumidifiers - a device that removes excess moisture from the air, often used to dry rooms or buildings to stop or prevent mould and mildew growth

Detergents - a water-soluble cleansing agent often used to clean garments, fabrics, or hard surfaces

Diapers - a piece of disposable absorbent material wrapped around a person’s (usually a baby’s) bottom and between its legs to absorb and retain urine and faeces

Dike foil – plastic foils or tarps that, when used in combination with sandbags, can protect and strengthen old and pre-damaged dikes from leaking

Dining furniture (benches and tables) – furniture for the serving and consumption of meals

Dining utensils – instruments used for eating, including forks, knives, and spoons in western cultures

Disinfectant (for insects, rodents, fungus, etc.) – non-residual cleaning product containing synthetic pyrethroid, a dual quat, isopropyl alcohol and water (brand name Steri-Fab)

Disinfectant (solid) – a solid-state tablet or powder chemical disinfectant designed to be dissolved in water for the treatment of the water itself or for use on surfaces

Disinfectant and cleaning material – materials that eliminate microorganisms and generally clean surfaces

Diving suit and accessories - a garment or device designed to protect a diver from the underwater environment, including a helmet and breathing gas supply

Drinking water disinfectant (such as SAVO) – chemical used to make water safe for human consumption

Drinking water, bottled - purified, spring, mineral, or other type of water packaged in plastic bottles of litre or half-litre size

Dump trucks - a truck with a body that tilts or opens at the back for unloading

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ECG machine – a medical device that measures the electrical activity of the heart, either stationary or portable

Electrocoagulator – also known as an electrocoagulation reactor; part of a water treatment system that removes otherwise impossible to remove contaminants such as petroleum and heavy metals

Engineer team (drying equipment) – a team of specialists knowledgeable of the best and latest techniques for drying structures

Excavator, wheeled or tracked - a large machine for removing soil from the ground, consisting of a boom, stick, bucket and cab

Experts (from CEP list)See “Civil Emergency Planning Crisis Management Arrangements” document for list of available experts

Exploding/demolition devices – an explosive agent or substance, e.g. dynamite, that clears buildings, terrain, or waterways of obstructions or structures

Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) de-mining devices – anti-explosive device using one of several methods to prevent mines or other explosives from detonating or detonating in a controlled manner

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Fibre-optic bronchoscopes – a medical instrument made of flexible optical fibre used to visualise the inside of the airways

Fire trucks (with/without ladder) - a vehicle carrying firefighters and equipment for fighting large fires

Firefighting equipment (rescue ropes, ladder, etc.) – assorted equipment used by professionals to fight fires, often in conjunction with a fire truck

First aid kits - a collection of medical supplies and equipment for use in administering first aid

First aid obstetrician-gynaecological kit – a collection of disposable medical supplies vital for emergency delivery situations

Floor tarps - a large sheet of strong, durable, water-resistant or waterproof material used to create the floor of tents

Food (Baby) – infant formula and food designed for babies

Food (Halal) - foods that Muslims are allowed to eat or drink under Islamic Shariʻah

Food (specify type, quantity) – nutrient-dense, shelf-stable food that is either pre-packaged in meals or in bulk packaging

Forest fire-fighting equipment (hoes, shovels, metal broom, hookaroon, pickaroon, etc.) – assorted equipment used by professionals to fight brush or forest fires

Forklift - a vehicle with a pronged device in front for lifting and carrying heavy loads

Fuel (Diesel/Petrol) – liquid petroleum-based fuels for internal combustion engines; specify means of delivery, fuel type, and quantity requested

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Galvanised wire – steel wire that has been treated with zinc to prevent rusting

Gas cookers - a stove which uses natural gas, propane, butane, liquefied petroleum gas or other flammable gas as a fuel source

Gas mask with air cleaner - a mask used to protect the wearer from inhaling airborne pollutants and toxic gases

Generators (specify size/capacity/fuel) – device that uses an internal combustion engine (either diesel or petrol) to produce electricity of various output levels

Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) – hand-held receivers for satellite-based navigation system, e.g. GPS, Galileo, GLONASS

Gown, isolation – a re-useable or disposable protective garment worn by medical professionals that is lightweight and fluid-resistant

Grader (heavy-duty) - a wheeled machine for levelling the ground, especially in making roads

Grinder – either a handheld power tool also known as an angle or disc grinder used for cutting, grinding, and polishing or a stationary grinding machine that grinds with an abrasive wheel

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Hand disinfectant - a gel, foam, or liquid solution supplement or alternative to hand washing with soap and water

Hand tools (rake, pickax, hoe, saw, etc.) – assorted manual tools used for landscaping, gardening, construction, disaster clean up, or other general tasks

Helicopter (specify size, use) - a type of aircraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors; used for transportation, search-and-rescue, construction, firefighting, and military tasks

Helicopter landing mats – mats, often made from heavy-duty aluminium or composite materials, which create temporary landing areas for helicopters

Helmets for face protection – a helmet that covers the entire head, face, and chin area or a smaller helmet that is equipped with a clear plastic face shield

High energy biscuits - wheat biscuits containing high-protein cereals and vegetable fat with a high energy-to-weight ratio

High pressure cleaners - a high-pressure mechanical sprayer used to remove loose paint, mould, grime, dust, mud, and dirt from surfaces and objects such as buildings, vehicles and concrete surfaces; also known as a pressure washer

Hot air dryer (specify capacity) – equipment that uses a blower to pass ambient air through a burner where the air is heated and ultimately discharged through a nozzle

Housing, prefabricated – medium- to long-term shelters or homes that are manufactured off-site and shipped to the building site, either in whole or in sections, which can be ready to use quickly

Hygiene Packages (soap, tissue, dental care, etc.) – individual kits of personal care items, including soap, shampoo, toothbrush, toothpaste, razor, shaving cream, comb, brush, deodorant, and other hygiene items

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Infusions/transfusion (medical/blood) – the solution (as of glucose or salt) or blood products introduced into a vein for medical purposes

Infusomats – brand name for volumetric infusion pump for use in anaesthesia and intensive care medicine

Insect repellents - a substance applied to skin, clothing, or other surfaces which discourages insects from landing or climbing on that surface, especially to prevent the spread of malaria, Lyme disease, and other infections

Intravenous injection system – medical equipment used for the infusion of liquid substances directly into a vein

Intubation tubes – a flexible plastic tube designed to be inserted into the trachea to maintain an open airway or to serve as a conduit through which to administer certain drugs

Isolation Bag for the injured - A bag with draw-string closure that can be used in the sterile field to isolate and contain organs and body parts for surgical procedures

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Kerosene stoves – a portable cooking stove that burns kerosene

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Life vests – a device worn over the upper body like a jacket or vest designed to prevent drowning by holding an individual on the surface of the water

Lighting/lights (specify type) – equipment used to produce light which can be handheld, wearable (on a helmet), mounted to a vehicle, or stationary (tent lighting, flood lighting, etc.)

Liquid soap – cleansing agent in liquid form, with or without antimicrobial properties

Livestock feed - food given to domestic animals in the course of animal husbandry, often grains such as maize, soya beans, and oats

Loaders - a heavy vehicle with a large scoop in front that is used for digging and loading loose material

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Medical doctors/paramedics - a person who is trained and certified to do medical work, including emergency first aid

Medication (Class, Trade, Brand; Indication) - a substance used for medical treatment, especially a medicine or drug, that is proven safe and effective for human use

Metal cutters – sheers sharp and durable enough to cut through metal

Metallic pipes of different diameters – tubes generally made of steel, iron, brass, or copper for transporting liquids or gasses

Mineral fertilizers – limestone, rock phosphate, sodium nitrate, and other compounds which are added to soil to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants

Mobile chemical laboratory – a mobile (vehicle) laboratory that can be taken to an incident site to detect chemical or biological warfare agents

Mobile decontamination unit w/ carriage – a transportable trailer purposed for victim decontamination in the case of a chemical or biological attack equipped with showers and changing rooms

Mobile kitchen – mobile trailer, fully-equipped, rapidly-deployable cooking units with large capacity meal preparation capabilities

Mobile NBC emergency field lab – rugged, self-contained vehicle laboratories used to identify and verify any nuclear, biological or chemical contaminants and support the emergency response to the event

Mobile Polyclinic for screening/medicare – a mobile medical facility where general care can be provided by medical professionals

Mobile Surgical Unit - Field Hospital - mobile ambulatory surgery facilities designed and equipped to provide on-sight surgical services

Mobile ultrasound machine – portable medical device that uses ultrasound waves to visualise internal body structures for possible pathology or lesions and also widely used to examine foetuses during pregnancy

Mobile welding machines – portable equipment that uses one of several techniques to cut metal or fuse two pieces of metal together

Mortuary sacks – also known as body bags or cadaver pouches; a non-porous bag designed to contain a human body, used in the storage and transportation of corpses

Mosquito nets – a net that is used over a bed to protect sleeping occupants from mosquitos and other insects and insect-borne illnesses; effectiveness greatly improved if treated with insecticide or insect repellent

Mules - the offspring of a male donkey and a female horse, often used as work animals in areas where vehicles are impractical

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Non-sterile cotton – cotton not for use in strictly medical applications but rather for personal care or other uses

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Oil skimmer system – equipment of varying size and capacity used to separate and remove oil (such as petroleum products) or another liquid from water

Outboard engine for rubber boat - a propulsion system for boats, consisting of a self-contained unit that includes engine, gearbox and propeller or jet drive, designed to be affixed to the outside of a boat

Oxygen concentrators - a device which concentrates the oxygen from a gas supply (typically ambient air) to supply an oxygen-enriched gas mixture for a variety of uses, including medical and water treatment

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Paving equipment – heavy machinery used for building or fixing roads, including concrete mixers and dispensers, aggregate batching plants, pavers, and asphalt repair machines

Personnel – staff able to assist and engage in needed, organized tasks

Pillows/pillow cases – a cushioned support for the head generally used while sleeping with a removable and washable or disposable cover

Plough blades – a broad upright blade that attaches to the front of trucks or heavy vehicles for clearing away snow from a road or track

Pneumatic hammer - a pneumatic or electro-mechanical tool that combines a hammer directly with a chisel used for breaking up rock, pavement, or concrete

Portable dryers (condensation dryers) – mobile clothes dryers for drying clothes and fabrics after being washed

Portable dryers (specify capacity) - a machine or device for drying buildings and rooms using one of several techniques

Powder fire extinguisher trailer – mobile firefighting equipment which has a compressed nitrogen cylinder and tank of dry powder fire suppressant, along with storage and other accessories

Power reestablishment teams – teams of personnel that are experts in restoring electricity to areas with disconnected service

Prophylactic substances (insects, rats) – repellents and treatments intended to prevent insect, rodent, or other pest infestations 

Protective clothing (disposable, one time usage) – protective clothing, helmets, goggles or other garments or equipment designed to protect the wearer from hazards one time before being discarded

Protective clothing (specify level of protection) - protective clothing, helmets, goggles or other garments or equipment designed to protect the wearer from hazards, possibly including chemicals or biohazards

Pulveriser of disinfecting liquids (electric/combustion engine, type, capacity) – portable sprayer or cold fogger of disinfectant solution operated by one person that can quickly apply the solution to a large facility

Pump (specify capacity, electric/combustion, floating/submersion, use) – a device that moves fluids, including water, mud, and wastewater, by mechanical action and is usually powered by electricity or an internal combustion engine; capacities and uses vary

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Quilted suits – cold weather personal clothing

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Radioactivity detector (Automess) - a portable, battery-operated radiation dose rate meter to measure photon radiation (gamma and X-radiation) and to detect beta radiation

Ready meals (MREs) – a self-contained, lightweight, individual meal ration for use where organized food facilities are not available

Re-hydration salt – a type of fluid replacement therapy consisting of electrolytes used to treat dehydration

Rescue dog team – search and rescue team with dogs trained to locate missing people

Respiratory Equipment with Fresh air / (O2) Tube - a device used to help a patient breathe normally, supplied by an oxygen concentrator tank

Respiratory ventilators - a machine designed to mechanically move breathable air into and out of the lungs

Restoration of cultural relics – the service of restoring culturally important items to a previous state, on-site or in a laboratory

Roof slate – a type of construction material used to cover roofs

Rubber boots - knee-length waterproof rubber or plastic footwear that protects the wearer from water, mud, or other hazards or contaminates

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Safety glasses - toughened glasses or goggles for protecting the eyes when using power tools or industrial or laboratory equipment

Sandbag filling machines – automated equipment designed to fill sandbags rapidly

Sandbags - a sack made of burlap, polypropylene, or other materials that is filled with sand or soil and used for such purposes as flood control

Scalpels - a small, light, usually straight knife used in surgical and anatomical operations and dissections

Search and rescue team with medical component – teams dedicated to finding missing persons following an emergency event that are prepared to perform life-saving measures

Sewage pumps – a pump used specifically to transfer blackwater to wastewater systems or away from low-lying areas

Sheets (cotton/single use/sheets) - a large rectangular piece of cotton, disposable, or other fabric, used on a bed to cover the mattress and as a layer beneath blankets when these are used

Shoes/socks – general use footwear not reaching above the ankle and worn with socks underneath

Shower, field type - equipment used to provide sanitation facilities to personnel or disaster victims with integrated plumbing and rapid deployment capabilities; includes water in the field of operations

Sleeping bags - a warm lined padded bag to sleep in; appropriate for local temperature conditions

Snow blowers – a motor-driven machine on wheels used to remove snow by throwing it into the air and to one side

Specimen collector kit – a kit for sampling contaminated specimens from a chemical or biological attack

Splints, various types - a thin piece of wood or other rigid material used to immobilize a fractured or dislocated bone, or to maintain any part of the body in a fixed position

Sponge - a tool or cleaning aid consisting of porous material

Sterilant (rapid) for medical apparatus – a chemical sterilizing agent specifically for use on medical (surgical) equipment

Stoves - a portable or fixed apparatus that furnishes heat for warmth, cooking, etc., commonly using coal, oil, gas, wood, or electricity as a source of power

Stoves, field type - a cooking stove specially designed to be portable and lightweight, as in camping, picnicking, backpacking, or other use in remote locations

Stretcher – canvas or similar material stretched on a frame, for carrying persons with limited mobility

Stretcher, spine immobilization – a stretcher designed to provide rigid support during movement of a patient with suspected spinal or limb injuries

Subclavian catheters – a thin tube extruded from medical grade materials placed into a large vein in the chest to administer medication, obtain blood tests, and perform other tasks

Surgical ophthalmological kit – supplies necessary for performing specialised surgery on the eye

Suture material (chromed catgut, surgical silk, etc.) – the fibre used to join the edges of a wound or the like by stitching

Syringes - a small device consisting of a glass, metal, or hard rubber tube, narrowed at its outlet, and fitted with either a piston or a rubber bulb for drawing in a quantity of fluid or for ejecting fluid in a stream

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Tableware items - the dishes, utensils, etc., used at the table

Tarps / plastic sheeting - a heavy hard-wearing waterproof fabric made of canvas or similar material coated with tar, wax, or paint, for outdoor use as a protective covering against moisture

Technical assistance – non-material support provided on a specific area of expertise by a team or individual

Tent heater – a flameless heat source that is an appropriate size for heating a tent of a given size

Tents (specify capacity, summer/winter) - a portable shelter of canvas, plastic, or the like, supported by one or more poles or a frame and often secured by ropes fastened to pegs in the ground; can be from single- to large-capacity for sleeping, logistics, headquarters, cooking and dining, or other uses

Thermos flask (25 litres) – also known as a water cooler or beverage dispenser; a small, portable jug with a spout used for storing and dispensing cold beverages

Tire chains - a chain fitting over the tire of a car, truck, or other vehicle, to increase traction and prevent skidding on roads covered with ice or snow

Tourniquets - a constricting or compressing device, specifically a bandage, used to control venous and arterial circulation to an extremity for a period of time

Towels – an absorbent cloth or paper for wiping and drying something wet, as one for the hands, face, or body after washing or bathing

Trailer - a large van or wagon drawn by an automobile, truck, or tractor, used especially in hauling freight by road

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Underwear - clothing worn next to the skin under outer clothes; can be different levels of warmth

Urological catheters - a thin tube extruded from medical grade materials inserted into a patient’s bladder to allow the passing of urine

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Vaccines (disease specific) - a preventive inoculation meeting WHO standards to confer immunity against a specific disease, usually employing an innocuous form of the disease agent, as killed or weakened bacteria or viruses, to stimulate antibody production

Vegetarian meals – meals and food options that do not contain meat

Vehicle (Amphibious rescue) - a vehicle that is a means of transport viable on land as well as on (or under) water equipped with the personnel and equipment that enables rescue operations

Vehicle (command and control) – a vehicle equipped with telecommunication and management systems that serves as a mobile platform for coordination and planning

Vehicle (Cross-country 4X4) – vehicle with the capabilities to traverse rough terrain where roads are in a state of disrepair, blocked with debris, or do not exist at all

Vehicle (fresh water tanker [bowser]) – tractor-trailer vehicle equipped with holding tank for potable water

Vehicle (medical all-road) – vehicle with off-road medical response capabilities

Vehicle (specify type, use)

Veterinary items (medicine) – medical supplies appropriate for the treatment of animals, possibly in a disaster situation

Vitamins – a supplement of any of various fat-soluble or water-soluble organic substances essential in minute amounts for normal growth and activity of the body and obtained naturally from plant and animal foods

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Wading trousers - high, waterproof boots or pants used for wading, as by fishermen, duck hunters, or labourers

Walkie talkies – hand-held two-way radios

Warehouse tent – large shelter used for the storage of supplies, a staging area, or as a coordination point

Water coolers – a large-capacity container that holds and dispenses water

Water filter, heavy-duty - a filter to remove impurities from the water supply

Water purification kits – self-contained point-of-use systems that render untreated, unchlorinated water potable

Water purification unit, medium capacity – portable system for purifying water for numerous people

Water storage containers (specify size) – food grade containers made of plastic (PETE) or non-reactive metal specifically designed for water storage needs

Water supply and treatment plant (specify size) – transport container-sized plants for medium- to long-term water purification

Waterproof coats - an outer garment with sleeves, covering at least the upper part of the body, made of waterproof fabric or with a waterproof coating

Watertight boots - a covering of leather, rubber, or the like, for the foot and all or part of the leg that does not allow water penetration

Watertight winter overalls with jackets - loose, sturdy trousers, usually with a bib or biblike piece to which shoulder straps are attached with a jacket and fabric that is suitable for cold temperatures and waterproof

Wheelbarrow - a simple vehicle for carrying small loads, typically being an open container supported by a wheel at the front and two legs and two handles behind

Winter clothing (gloves, overalls, winter masks, hats, etc.) – various garments and coverings appropriate to be worn in cold temperatures by working personnel or disaster victims

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