Chapter 4: Determination of Logistic
Requirements and Logistic Support
NATO Stockpile Planning Guidance (SPG)
405. Although Ministerial Guidance and the Force Plan
can be considered as the master document in NATO planning,
they may still need clarification or definition. Statements like
"nations should hold a minimum stock level of ammunition" or
"nations should provide sufficient logistic units to support their combat forces" mean little by themselves. Some standard of measurement is necessary to clarify what the statement means. This is achieved by:
- MC 55/3, Readiness and Sustainability Factors,
which addresses readiness criteria and sustainability
parameters to be used in force operational and logistic planning.
The main logistics elements covered by MC 55/3 are munitions, petroleum products, other materiel
and medical support.
- MNC SPG for Land and Air Forces and NATO
Stockpile Planning Guidance for Maritime Forces,
providing nations with sustainability guidance that reflects
current risks and capabilities.
406. Methodologies for stockpile planning include:
- Level of Effort
Methodology. The stockpile calculations are based on an
expected daily expenditure rate, the number of combat days, and the attrition rate to counter targets of which the number is unknown.
- Lifetime-oriented Methodology. These are stockpile calculations based on the finite life of weapons in combat, the number of weapon systems, the average number of engagements, and the sum of the expanded munitions fired by the weapon systems during their engagements until they are destroyed.
- Target-oriented Methodology. The stockpile calculations are based on an agreed mathematical model in order to defeat a finite, assessed number of targets.
ACE Resource Optimisation Software System (ACROSS)
407. ACROSS is a NATO decision support system for
logistic resource planning. It uses mathematical programming
models to assist the military planner in determining the
optimal acquisition of equipment and ammunition. National concepts
of operations and the acquisition policies are part of
the optimisation process. The main features of ACROSS are:
- the database of forces, targets, weapon
characteristics and operational factors;
- the mission allocation methodology to calculate
the SHAPE SPG; and
- the mathematical programming models for cost
optimal stockpile planning.
408. The ACROSS database includes a fully
relational database with information on forces, weapon systems,
munitions, target characteristics, operational factors and the
military mission. Data describing the forces is based on the national
DPQ replies. Technical data is compiled and verified twice
annually. Mission data is based on the Defence Requirements Review
studies which also form the basis for the NATO Force Planning.
The optimisation models interface directly with the database. By
using the same database ACROSS is closely coordinated with the
Allied Deployment and Movement System (ADAMS). The
common database will also serve the future Logistics Reporting System.
Bi-MNC Stockpile Guidance
409. MC 55/3 states that nations should maintain
expendable and non-expendable supplies to sustain combat by their forces
in support of NATO against the potential risk capabilities
identified. Stockpile requirements for munitions are determined by MNCs
in consultation with the countries using threat or target
related calculation methodologies. Other munition requirements
not covered under these methodologies are determined jointly
by MNCs and the nation(s). To guarantee the continued
availability of fuels to support NATO operational plans, nations
make arrangements to meet fuel requirements prior to hostilities
by establishing minimal operational stocks of fuel under the
control of military authorities, and by developing a valid resupply
plan to acquire additional fuel from civil resources. Finally, where
no guidance is given by MNCs, national planning factors apply.
Stockpile Planning Responsibilities
410. SHAPE is the lead MNC for Air Defence,
Air-to-Ground, and Land Forces Stockpile Guidance. Each guidance
determines the ammunition requirements for specified forces at Transfer
of Authority (TOA). SHAPE maintains the computer
based stockpile planning models and updates the database
of information required to determine the national
411. SACLANT is the lead MNC for Maritime Forces
Stockpile Planning. Maritime Stockpile Planning Guidance determines
the ammunition requirements for NATO maritime forces at
TOA. SACLANT maintains the computer-based stockpile
planning models and updates the database of information required
to determine national maritime stockpile requirements.
412. MNC stockpile planning guidance documents
and processes are co-ordinated with nations in the
appropriate stockpile planning fora. Nations also provide valid input
data and parameters required for operation of the computer
models used in determining stockpile requirements.
413. Major Subordinate Commands (MSCs) contribute to
the development and update of stockpile planning data
and processes. MSCs assess and evaluate the logistic
sustainability of nationally committed forces using the guidance documents.