October 1997

Chapter 4: Determination of Logistic
Requirements and Logistic Support

NATO Stockpile Planning Guidance (SPG)

405. Although Ministerial Guidance and the Force Plan can be considered as the master document in NATO planning, they may still need clarification or definition. Statements like "nations should hold a minimum stock level of ammunition" or "nations should provide sufficient logistic units to support their combat forces" mean little by themselves. Some standard of measurement is necessary to clarify what the statement means. This is achieved by:

  1. MC 55/3, Readiness and Sustainability Factors, which addresses readiness criteria and sustainability parameters to be used in force operational and logistic planning. The main logistics elements covered by MC 55/3 are munitions, petroleum products, other materiel and medical support.

  2. MNC SPG for Land and Air Forces and NATO Stockpile Planning Guidance for Maritime Forces, providing nations with sustainability guidance that reflects current risks and capabilities.

406. Methodologies for stockpile planning include:

  1. Level of Effort Methodology. The stockpile calculations are based on an expected daily expenditure rate, the number of combat days, and the attrition rate to counter targets of which the number is unknown.

  2. Lifetime-oriented Methodology. These are stockpile calculations based on the finite life of weapons in combat, the number of weapon systems, the average number of engagements, and the sum of the expanded munitions fired by the weapon systems during their engagements until they are destroyed.

  3. Target-oriented Methodology. The stockpile calculations are based on an agreed mathematical model in order to defeat a finite, assessed number of targets.

ACE Resource Optimisation Software System (ACROSS)

407. ACROSS is a NATO decision support system for logistic resource planning. It uses mathematical programming models to assist the military planner in determining the optimal acquisition of equipment and ammunition. National concepts of operations and the acquisition policies are part of the optimisation process. The main features of ACROSS are:

  • the database of forces, targets, weapon characteristics and operational factors;

  • the mission allocation methodology to calculate the SHAPE SPG; and

  • the mathematical programming models for cost optimal stockpile planning.

408. The ACROSS database includes a fully relational database with information on forces, weapon systems, munitions, target characteristics, operational factors and the military mission. Data describing the forces is based on the national DPQ replies. Technical data is compiled and verified twice annually. Mission data is based on the Defence Requirements Review studies which also form the basis for the NATO Force Planning. The optimisation models interface directly with the database. By using the same database ACROSS is closely coordinated with the Allied Deployment and Movement System (ADAMS). The common database will also serve the future Logistics Reporting System.

Bi-MNC Stockpile Guidance

409. MC 55/3 states that nations should maintain expendable and non-expendable supplies to sustain combat by their forces in support of NATO against the potential risk capabilities identified. Stockpile requirements for munitions are determined by MNCs in consultation with the countries using threat or target related calculation methodologies. Other munition requirements not covered under these methodologies are determined jointly by MNCs and the nation(s). To guarantee the continued availability of fuels to support NATO operational plans, nations make arrangements to meet fuel requirements prior to hostilities by establishing minimal operational stocks of fuel under the control of military authorities, and by developing a valid resupply plan to acquire additional fuel from civil resources. Finally, where no guidance is given by MNCs, national planning factors apply.

Stockpile Planning Responsibilities

410. SHAPE is the lead MNC for Air Defence, Air-to-Ground, and Land Forces Stockpile Guidance. Each guidance determines the ammunition requirements for specified forces at Transfer of Authority (TOA). SHAPE maintains the computer based stockpile planning models and updates the database of information required to determine the national stockpile requirements.

411. SACLANT is the lead MNC for Maritime Forces Stockpile Planning. Maritime Stockpile Planning Guidance determines the ammunition requirements for NATO maritime forces at TOA. SACLANT maintains the computer-based stockpile planning models and updates the database of information required to determine national maritime stockpile requirements.

412. MNC stockpile planning guidance documents and processes are co-ordinated with nations in the appropriate stockpile planning fora. Nations also provide valid input data and parameters required for operation of the computer models used in determining stockpile requirements.

413. Major Subordinate Commands (MSCs) contribute to the development and update of stockpile planning data and processes. MSCs assess and evaluate the logistic sustainability of nationally committed forces using the guidance documents.

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