3 Dec. 1993
by NACC Ad Hoc Group on Cooperation in Peacekeeping
Building on the decisions taken at the meeting of the North Atlantic
Cooperation Council in Athens on 11th June 1993, the Ad Hoc Group
on Cooperation in Peacekeeping has continued to serve as a forum
for consultations on political and conceptual issues related to
peacekeeping in the CSCE area.It has also further developed a broad
programme of concrete cooperation activities in this field.
- Conceptual Approaches
The definitions, principles and criteria set out in the Report
endorsed by NACC Ministers in Athens have underpinned the work of
the Ad Hoc Group with regard to conceptual issues.The political
debate has mainly focussed on concrete experiences by individual
participants and on cooperation with other relevant institutions.Conceptual
issues, and in particular the evolutionary nature of the concept
of peacekeeping, have been discussed on a number of occasions, including
the Seminar held in Prague on 30th June - 2nd July 1993.
A follow-on seminar on political and conceptual aspects of peacekeeping
will be held in Spring 1994, with a view to:examining the concept
of peacekeeping; exchanging national experiences in peacekeeping;
and discussing the military-civilian relationship in the peacekeeping
framework. This, however, should not precede nor delay the practical
cooperation activities but rather should flow naturally from these.
- Measures for Practical Co-Operation in Peacekeeping
At the meeting on 17th September the Ad Hoc Group decided to institute
the Ad Hoc Technical Sub-Group (TSG) envisaged in the Athens Report
as a means of pursuing the development of practical measures in
a coordinated manner.The TSG has reviewed the work set in train
at Athens and has developed a structure for dealing with it.Work
has been allocated for each main area to groups of experts chaired
by a lead-nation, the International Military Staff or the International
Staff.Responsibility for and co-ordination of this work rest with
the TSG which will receive regular reports from the expert working
groups.In its turn, the TSG will regularly submit an account of
its work to the AHG, which retains overall responsibility.
The high-level seminar held in Prague on 30th June - 2nd July offered
participants new opportunities to discuss and develop a common understanding
of operational concepts and requirements for peacekeeping together
with indications of fields for enhanced practical co-operation.
Bearing in mind the scope of the Athens work plan, consideration
may need to be given to prioritising tasks.This issue will be pursued
shortly by the TSG.Transparency is essential; and information on
the progress of work in the expert groups will be provided to all
nations, whether or not resources permit them to participate actively
in the work of particular groups.
Work in the initial stages has concentrated on exchanging information
and defining the task more precisely, whilst firmly keeping in mind
the objectives for the various broad areas of practical co-operation
as set out in the Athens Report to Ministers of 11th June.The following
paragraphs describe progress in greater detail.
Cooperation in Planning
As required by the Athens report, the NATO Military Authorities
submitted three staff papers to the Ad Hoc Group, covering the assets
and capabilities required for the conduct of peacekeeping operations;
the possibility and utility of developing a database of available
resources; and the requirements for forces, procedures and equipment
to facilitate co-operation in peacekeeping operations.This initial
work is now being pursued by an open-ended experts working group,
chaired by the International Military Staff, which held its first
meeting on 16th November.
The TSG is presently discussing the need to establish a NACC database.Duplication
with similar efforts in the CSCE and United Nations, in particular
with the latter's recent Standby Forces System initiative needs
to be avoided.As a first step, therefore, nations represented in
the TSG have agreed to circulate to each other their responses to
the UN initiative, when ready.In the light of these replies they
will then consider the extent to which it is desirable to develop
a separate NACC database.
Development of a Common Technical Base
At the request of the TSG, NATO's Military Authorities (NMAs)
have developed an initial paper covering generic planning issues
relating to Command and Control Standards and Procedures, Standard
Operating Procedures (SOPs) and Rules of Engagement (ROEs) for peacekeeping
operations, which is presently under consideration by the TSG. Command
and control aspects will be pursued early next year based on a further
paper by the United Kingdom.
The Netherlands have undertaken to chair an expert group on Communications
for Peacekeeping operations which will build on the results of the
workshop held in the Hague, last May. Discussion papers were circulated
in November.The first meeting of the group will take place on the
14th and 15th December.
The TSG has asked the International Staff to take the lead initially
on the subject of equipment interoperability. It has circulated
an informal paper in the Technical Sub-Group, and on that basis
the TSG has invited nations to exchange views on equipment-related
aspects of interoperability in peacekeeping operations.Drawing on
the results of this information exchange, consideration of the way
forward will take place early next year.
The International Staff, together with NATO's Military Authorities,
is also taking the lead on logistics for peacekeeping.Practical
work on this topic has already started with the successful seminar,
held last month in Oslo. The report by the Norwegian authorities
on the results of the seminar will provide an important contribution
to the further work on this topic.
Training, Education and Exercises
Denmark has taken the lead on the theme of joint training and
education for peacekeeping operations with an offer to establish
as a first step a clearing house function.France has also offered
to make a substantial contribution.The work in this context will
build on the results of earlier activities, such as the pilot course
for unit commanders, held earlier this year in the Czech Republic,
and the seminar, held in Copenhagen, 3 weeks ago (a report on which
is attached at Annex III).The objective is to share expertise and
experience and possibly to develop a common approach based on an
information exchange on national and NATO training programmes for
The United States has agreed to be the lead-nation on the topic
of joint exercises for peacekeeping operations.Work on this issue
has started with the US sponsored Peacekeeping Workshop, held in
the George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies at Garmisch
early last month.The US report (attached at Annex II) on the results
of the workshop will form a basis for further work in this field.Poland
reconfirmed its offer to make available training areas on Polish
territory to NACC partners for the purpose of peacekeeping exercises.Hungary
has also offered to host a workshop dealing with the humanitarian
aspects of peacekeeping.
Sweden, Finland and Austria have attended meetings of the Ad Hoc
Group as observers and have fully participated in some of the activities
of the Ad Hoc Group, contributing on the basis of their specific
experience and expertise in this field.Representatives of the CSCE
Chairman-in-Office equally participated in the work of the Ad Hoc
Group, with a view to ensuring an efficient coordination in their
respective activities in the field of peacekeeping.The UN Secretariat
has also been invited to be represented in the meetings of the Group.
Attached at Annex I is the initial Work Programme of the Ad Hoc
Group for 1994.