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NATO's evolving partnerships
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NATO's evolving partnerships
During the production of this issue of NATO Review, the United States suffered a devastating terrorist attack, the effects of which have been felt around the world.
Focus on NATO: short news about NATO, September 2001
Robert Weaver analyses the evolution of NATO's partnerships ten years after the creation of the North Atlantic Cooperation Council.
Robert E. Hunter examines the potential of the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council and proposes that it play a greater role in Euro-Atlantic security.
James Appathurai examines how NATO promotes regional security cooperation in the Balkans, the Caucasus and the Baltics
Irakli Menagarishvili describes Georgia's relationship with the Alliance and how it is evolving to the benefit of both Georgia and NATO.
Michael Rhle gazes into his crystal ball and imagines how the Alliance and the Euro-Atlantic security environment might look in ten years.
Between 1949 and 1989, a total of 456 nuclear tests were carried out at Semipalatinsk in Kazakhstan, the former Soviet Union's premier test site, before its closure by presidential edict in 1991.
An innovative, NATO-sponsored programme is helping recently and soon-to-be discharged officers in Bulgaria and Romania find work and make new lives for themselves outside the military and will soon be extended to Croatia and possibly Albania.
In June 1999, when President of Finland, Martti Ahtisaari persuaded then Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic to accept NATO's terms for ending the Kosovo air campaign. Since leaving office in 2000, he has chaired various conflict-prevention organisations, has been an independent inspector of the IRA's arms dumps in Northern Ireland, and has founded an association to facilitate his international work.
Christopher Bennett reviews recent literature on the latest part of the former Yugoslavia to succumb to ethnic violence.
Colonel Ralph D. Thiele marks the 50th anniversary of the NATO Defense College by describing how the institution has expanded its courses and activities to include citizens of Partner countries.
Chris Donnelly examines why military reform has proved so difficult in Central and Eastern Europe and prospects for future restructuring.

During the production of this issue of NATO Review, the United States suffered a devastating terrorist attack, the effects of which have been felt around the world. The reaction of America's Allies to the barbaric attacks of 11 September was immediate: total solidarity with the United States in its time of need. As a profound symbol of that solidarity, on 12 September, NATO's members agreed that, if it were determined that this attack had been directed from abroad against the United States, it should be regarded as an action covered by Article 5 of the Washington Treaty, which states that an attack against one or more Allies shall be considered an attack against them all. On 2 October, the US government confirmed that the attacks had indeed been launched from abroad, by terrorists from Osama Bin Laden's al-Qaida organisation.

NATO's essential foundation - its bedrock - has always been Article 5, the commitment to collective defence. Of course, this commitment was first entered into in 1949, in very different circumstances. But it remains equally valid and essential today, in the face of this new threat.With the decision to invoke Article 5, NATO's members demonstrated, once again, that the Alliance is no simple talking shop. It is a community of nations, united by its values, and utterly determined to act together to defend them.

On 12 September, it was also demonstrated that the Euro-Atlantic community today is much broader than the 19 NATO members. Within hours of NATO's historic decision, the 46 member countries of the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council - from North America, Europe and Central Asia - issued a statement in which they agreed that these acts were an attack not only on the United States, but on our common values. In the EAPC statement, the 46 countries also pledged to undertake all efforts needed to combat the scourge of terrorism.

It is too early to say what role NATO and its members, or the EAPC, will play in the coming international struggle against the scourge of terrorism. That struggle will be long and sometimes difficult. It will require all the tools at our disposal, political, economic, diplomatic as well as military. And it will need the active engagement of the widest possible coalition of countries, all working towards common goals. The solidarity and determination displayed in Brussels on 12 September, by the North Atlantic Council and the EAPC, are a vital first step. They show the practical importance of NATO's partnerships and underline the timeliness of this issue of NATO Review.

Lord Robertson