Relations with Finland
NATO and Finland share common values, conduct an open and regular political dialogue and engage in a wide range of practical cooperation. NATO and Finland actively cooperate in peace-support operations, exercise together and exchange analysis and information. In May 2022, Finland submitted its official letter of application to become a NATO Ally. Together with Sweden, Finland completed accession talks at NATO Headquarters in Brussels on 4 July 2022, confirming its willingness and ability to meet the political, legal and military obligations and commitments of NATO membership. On 5 July, Allies signed the Accession Protocol for Finland, which then became an Invitee, attending NATO meetings as such. Once all Allies have ratified the Accession Protocol according to their national procedures, the Secretary General will invite Finland to accede to the Washington Treaty, after which it will become a NATO Ally.
- Finnish cooperation with NATO has historically been based on its policy of military non-alignment and a firm national political consensus.
- Cooperation began when Finland joined the Partnership for Peace (PfP) programme in 1994 and the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (a multilateral forum for dialogue which brings together all Allies and partner countries in the Euro-Atlantic area) in 1997.
- An Individual Partnership and Cooperation Programme (IPCP), which is jointly agreed for a two-year period, laid out the programme of cooperation between Finland and NATO.
- Finland has been one of NATO's most active partners and a valued contributor to NATO-led operations and missions in the Balkans, Afghanistan and Iraq.
- As one of six countries (known as 'Enhanced Opportunity Partners'1 under the Partnership Interoperability Initiative) that make particularly significant contributions to NATO operations and other Alliance objectives, Finland experienced enhanced opportunities for dialogue and cooperation with the Allies.
- In light of Russia’s unprovoked invasion of Ukraine, which began in February 2022, Finland (together with Sweden) submitted its official letter of application to become a NATO Ally on 18 May.
- On 4 July 2022, following the Madrid Summit of NATO Leaders, Finland and Sweden completed accession talks at NATO Headquarters in Brussels. The Allies signed the Accession Protocols for Finland and Sweden the following day. These Protocols will have to be ratified by all NATO countries according to their national procedures.
- Enhanced Opportunity Partners: Australia, Finland, Georgia, Jordan, Sweden and Ukraine.
Key areas of cooperation
Finland's cooperation with NATO has been mutually beneficial and includes:
Building capabilities and interoperability
- Finland participated in the PfP Planning and Review Process (PARP) and the Operational Capabilities Concept, two frameworks that assist partner countries in planning and evaluating the readiness of its contributions to NATO-led peace-support operations.
- Finland participated in NATO and PfP exercises and has declared a variety of infantry, engineering, naval, and air units as potentially available for exercises and operations.
- Finland regularly contributed to European Union (EU) Battlegroups, and is cooperating with other countries to develop a multinational rapid-reaction force for EU-led peace-support operations.
- Finland participates in two strategic airlift initiatives: the Strategic Airlift Capability (SAC) programme and the Strategic Airlift International Solution (SALIS).
- In 2017, Finland created the Helsinki European Centre of Excellence for Countering Hybrid Threats. The centre is open to participating states and supported by NATO and the EU.
- Beginning in 2014, under the Partnership Interoperability Initiative, Finland participated in the Interoperability Platform, which brings Allies together with selected partners that are active contributors to NATO's operations.
- Finland and NATO signed a Political Framework Arrangement in 2017 for cooperation on cyber defence. The country also participated in the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence, NATO cyber defence exercises and cyber-related 'Smart Defence' projects.
- In July 2001, NATO formally recognised the Finnish Defence Forces International Centre (FINCENT) as a PfP Training Centre. FINCENT provides training on military crisis management for staff employed by international organisations such as NATO, the United Nations (UN) and the EU.
- Finland has close ties with other Nordic countries and participates in Nordic Defence Cooperation (NORDEFCO), a regional defence initiative that promotes collaboration between Nordic armed forces.
Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg and Minister of Foreign Affairs of Finland Pekka Haavisto (October 2021)
Support for NATO-led operations and missions
- Finland first participated in a NATO-led operation in 1996 when it contributed a battalion to the NATO-led peacekeeping force in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
- From 2002, Finnish soldiers worked alongside Allied forces in Afghanistan – first as part of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF), which completed its mission at the end of 2014, and later as part of the follow-on Resolute Support Mission (RSM) to further train, assist and advise the Afghan security forces and institutions until its completion in September 2021. Finland also contributed over USD 14 million to the Afghan National Army Trust Fund.
- Finland provides personnel to the NATO-led peacekeeping force in Kosovo (KFOR).
- Finland also participates in NATO Mission Iraq (NMI), NATO's advisory and capacity-building mission in Iraq.
- Finland participated in the enhanced NATO Response Force (NRF) in a supplementary role and subject to national decisions. Additionally, Finland signed a memorandum of understanding on Host Nation Support which, subject to a national decision, allowed for logistical support to Allied forces located on, or in transit through, its territory during exercises or in a crisis.
- Finland has engaged with NATO's Resilience Committee and cooperates with Allies on regional assessments, security of supply, critical infrastructure protection, and in providing mutual support in dealing with the consequences of a major accident or disaster in the Euro-Atlantic area.
- Finnish civil resources have been listed with NATO's Euro-Atlantic Disaster Response Coordination Centre (EADRCC) and Finland has contributed to NATO's pool of preparedness experts. Finland has also provided civil preparedness training to Allies and other partners.
- Current practical cooperation under the Science for Peace and Security (SPS) Programme focuses on activities pertaining to counter-terrorism, cyber defence, chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) defence, environmental security, and advanced technology. Among them, noteworthy is the participation of Finland in the DEXTER Programme, which is developing an integrated system to detect explosives and firearms in public spaces. Moreover, cyber experts from Finland are training artificial intelligence systems to recognise potential cyber attacks. Finnish scientists are also involved in the development of low-cost optical sensors for detection of airborne chemical and biological agents.
- Finland actively supports the implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security (WPS), and since 2008 has developed successive National Action Plans in support of the WPS agenda.
- Finland has been an active supporter of NATO Trust Fund projects in partner countries and has contributed to nearly a dozen so far, including many that fall under NATO's Defence and Related Security Capacity Building (DCB) Initiative. Currently, it is supporting the DCB Trust Fund, and projects in Georgia, Jordan, the Republic of Moldova and Ukraine.