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Eastern vs. Western Europe: Circumstances and Challenge
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2.8. Romanian Radio Broadcasting Corporation - RRBC

2.8.1. History and evolution

In March it was created in Bucharest the association 'Friends of Radio - Telephony', having as its main objective the foundation of the Society for radio broadcasting in Romania.
By ministerial decision, a commission was set up in order to advertise and start the foundation of the Society of Radiophone Distribution (Broadcasting Society).
In January it was founded in Romania the Society of Radiophone Distribution, whose activity started officially one month later. The first official broadcast in Romania took place on 1 November and it was five hours long, in two parts.
In June the second Romanian radio-station went on air.
In February the new studios of the National Radio were inaugurated.
The technique was continuously improved, new and more powerful transmitters were built, the number of broadcasting hours grew up, and prepares were started for building the first regional radio-station.
The first regional radio-station "Radio Moldova" was inaugurated in Iasi (North - Eastern Romania).
Six radio-stations were already broadcasting the programmes of the Romanian national radio, on medium and short waves' frequencies.
After the Second World War a huge reconstruction programme started in order to eliminate the damages suffered during the war and for modernising the broadcasting in Romania.
Unfortunately, in June 1948 the newly born communist state nationalised the Romanian private capital, including that of the National Broadcasting Corporation, which was transformed in a state company.
In this period the corporation was able to broadcast two radio-programmes simultaneously, and some times even three.
Four new regional stations started their broadcasts in Cluj (March 1954), Craiova (June 1954), Timisoara (May 1955) and Targu Mures (March 1958), covering - together with the Iasi station (created in 1941), the historical provinces of Romania.
In May The Romanian Broadcasting Company launch its third programme, transmitted nation-wide.
The company extended its broadcasting hours on all three national programmes and improved the quality of the broadcasts.
Since 1972, a Chinese inspired cultural revolution reduced Romanian electronic media to a propaganda instrument for the Communist Party and mainly for the party leader's cult of personality. The broadcasting hours were gradually reduced and the regional radio stations were all stopped. A special mention for the third programme of the Romanian Broadcasting Company, which maintained high professional standards all those years, being in fact the only programme that one could listen.
On 22 December, a day after the Romanian Revolution began, the Company started to quickly restructure its programmes, the regional radio stations (studios) restarted broadcasting, and the wind of change could be felt immediately.
The three main programmes were renamed Radio Romania News, Radio Romania Culture and Radio Romania Youth, and their broadcasting hour were extended.
Two new programmes were inaugurated: the Bucharest Antenna, for the listeners living in the capital-city, and the Village Antenna, for the peasants from the Southern and South-Eastern parts of Romania.
A very professional and useful department was created, the Monitoring Service, named 'Radio Observator', which provides fresh news and information from direct sources - radio and TV stations from all around Europe, from the Community of Independent States and from the United States of America.
As a result of the vanishing of the communist structures in Europe, Romania and all the other member-states of the former communist broadcasting organisation - OIRT became members of the European Broadcasting Union - EBU.
The three national programmes became 'channels' and a fourth national channel started: 'Radio Romania Music'.
A restructuring of the internal organization of RRBC was launched in August, having as a goal to modernise and make more efficient the work at all levels.

2.8.2. Legal framework

  1. The Audiovisual Law was adopted by the Parliament in May 1992. It came into force in October 1992. The law provides that:

    • the freedom of expression through audio and visual media is guaranteed according to the Constitution;

    • the broadcasters, public and private, are obliged to assure the correct informing of the public;

    • any kind of censorship is forbidden;

    • the good faith of the responsible persons in selecting the information that is going to be broadcast does not constitute censorship and may be done under the provisions of this law;

    • the freedom of expression through broadcasting may not prejudice the dignity, honour, private life of the individual nor his or her life to the personal image;

    • it is forbidden to libel the country and the nation, to urge for war and aggression, for national, racial, class or religious hatred, to incite to discrimination, territorial secession or public violence;

    • it is forbidden the broadcast of information that have a legal secret character or may prejudice the national security;

    • it is forbidden to programme and to broadcast obscene manifestations, opposing to the good manners;

    • the civil responsibility for the content of the information broadcast by audio and video media that produced material or moral damages belongs, depending to the case, and under the law's provisions, to the producer, the author, the licence titular, the owner of the station through which the communication has been done;

    • the capital of the public broadcasters must be wholly Romanian;

    • a broadcasting licence cannot be granted to a party or to other political organisation, nor to the public authorities;

    The Audiovisual Law also specifies the conditions and the method for obtaining a broadcasting licence, the modality of satellite receiving, and the way cable broadcasting may work. The law establishes on the other hand the National Council for Audiovisual.

  2. The National Council for Audiovisual has eleven members. They are nominated 2 (two) by the President of Romania, 3 (three) by the upper chamber of the Parliament - the Senate, 3 (three) by the lower chamber of the Parliament - the Deputies Chamber, and 3 (three) by the Government.

    • The members of the Council cannot be party members nor have public or private functions, except those of professors. They are warrants of the public interest in audiovisual field and do not represent the authority that nominated them.

    • The president of the Council is elected every 4 year, for a single term in office, with the majority of the votes by the members of the Council and by secret voting.

    • The Council controls the way audiovisual legislation is applied by the broadcasters and is entitled to give sanctions, along with the Ministry of Communications.

    • The National Council for Audiovisual is exercising its functions under Parliamentary control.

  3. The Law for Organization and Functioning of the Romanian Radio Broadcasting Corporation - RRBC

    The law was approved by the Parliament more than two years after the Audiovisual law came into force, and after long and difficult debates and controversy between the power and the democratic opposition.

Chapter I - General dispositions

  • The law provides that the RRBC is set up as an autonomous nation-wide public service, independent from the editorial point of view, by reorganising the former Romanian Radio and Television Company.

  • The RRBC is a legal person, has its headquarters in the capital-city of Bucharest and carries on its activities under Parliamentary control, according to the present law and to the international conventions Romania is part of.

  • The RRBC is compelled to ensure, through its entire activity, the pluralism, the free expression of ideas and opinions, the free dissemination of information and a correct information of the public. The content of the radio programmes has to meet the professional standards in the field.

  • The RRBC is compelled to present the realities of domestic and international social, political and economic life in an objective, unbiased manner, to ensure the correct information of citizens on public affairs, to promote - with competence and exigency, the values of the Romanian language, of the genuine national and universal cultural and scientific creation, those of the national minorities, the democratic, civic, and moral values and the sport-linked ones, to stand for national unity and independence of the country, to cultivate human dignity, truth and justice. To fulfil its tasks, the RRBC should observe the principles of the constitutional order in Romania.

  • The programmes of the RRBC are not supposed to serve, under no circumstances, as means for the denigration of the country and of the nation, are not supposed to urge for war and aggression, for national, racial, class or religious hatred, to incite to discrimination, territorial secession or public violence, should not propagate obscene manifestations, opposing to the morals and to good manners.

  • The broadcasting of programmes should not prejudice the measures for youth protection. Those programmes - which by their contents jeopardise the mental, moral or physical development of the children and youth, should not be broadcast between the hours 6:00 a.m. and 11:00 p.m..

  • The RRBC shall reserve a part of its broadcasting time to the political parties represented in the Parliament. The time allocated to the political parties cannot exceed 1/100 of the entire broadcasting week-time of the RRBC. The broadcasting time shall be allocated to the political parties according to the share held by their representatives in Parliament, taking into account a time unit for each MP, including the representatives of the national minorities.

  • The RRBC can broadcast advertisements only on the basis of a contract concluded with the beneficiary of the advertisement, the advertising programme producer or their authorised representatives, in accordance with the conditions stipulated by the norms drawn up by the National Council for Audio-visual.

  • The RRBC will promote and encourage the broadcast of Romanian radio-productions. The share of Romanian productions retained in the programmes should be of at least 40%.

  • The activities of the RRBC are autonomous and independent from the editorial point of view. This is guaranteed by law. The programmes are protected from any interference on behalf of public authorities, from the influence of any party, social-political organizations, trade unions, commercial and economic bodies or pressure groups. The programmes, for which the National Council for Audiovisual has the right - according to the Audiovisual Law, to establish mandatory norms, are an exception.

  • The public services of the radio are compelled to give priority and free coverage to communiqus and messages of public interest received from the Parliament, the Presidency of Romania, the Supreme Defence Council or from the Government.

  • The specialised staff of the RRBC benefit, while in office, of the protection of the law and of the rights stipulated in the statute of the radio-journalist. This statute that is comprising the rights and the obligations of the radio-journalist shall compulsory comprise norms guaranteeing that:

    1. the defence of journalists and of other programme producers against any attempt to diminish their professional independence and to injure their rights;

    2. they take part in any decision-making concerning the statute of the journalists and of other programme producers;

    3. the opinion of the person that will be sanctioned according to the law or the statute will be heard;

    4. the exercise of the journalist's or the programme producer's profession under the terms of moral, professional and legal responsibility, according to the case;

    5. the disputes concerning the implementation of the statute will be solved by an internal arbitration instance.

  • The specialised staff in the public radio service benefit, while in office, of the same protection by law as a civil servant.

  • While in office, the specialised staff can exercise another public or private job, only upon approval by the RRBC's Board of Management.

  • The specialised staff is that staff editing, writing or producing programmes or shows, or is directly or indirectly participating in their fulfilment.

  • It is forbidden to exert any form of psychical constraint, any pressure or intimidation against the specialised staff of the public radio service, meant to obstruct the staff's activity or to cause damages to its social and professional prestige.

  • The specialised staff cannot be members of political parties or other political groups and cannot promote in their activity the ideas or the programmes of any party or political group.

  • The specialised staff of the RRBC cannot be members of the boards of other radio or TV companies and cannot cumulate executive functions in those companies. They may collaborate with other radio and TV companies only upon approval by the Board of Management of the RRBC.

  • The news programmes should accurately present and honestly comment the information, free from any influence by public authorities or by any other private or public legal person. Any biased approach of the information is forbidden. The news and information to be broadcast should be checked. Their sense should not be distorted or fabricated by the way in which they are presented, by titles or comments. The news or information that later prove to be false or incorrect should be rectified. The broadcast of information injuring the rights or legitimate interests of a person confers the right to demand from the respective editorial staff the rectification of that piece of information, within no more than seven days since its broadcasting. The rectification and reply shall be broadcast within the same programme and at the same hour as those in which that person's right has been injured.

  • The responsibility for the information or production brought to the public knowledge lies, according to the law, with the programme or show producer, with the author, as well as with the public radio service.

  • The confidential character of the sources of information of the specialised staff is guaranteed by the law. Publication of sources, justified by a public interest violation, can de done only in exceptional cases on the basis of a law court or of a prosecutor's order.

  • When exercising their professional duties, the journalists and other programme producers can obtain information only by legal or moral means and cannot use it in their own benefit.

Chapter II - The object of activity of the RRBC

  • The production of radio-programmes in Romanian, in the languages of national minorities or in other languages, with an informative, educational, cultural and entertainment purpose;

  • The broadcasting of programmes through transmission stations and lines which it owns, or through hired audio, radio-electrical telecommunication networks owned by independent companies or trade companies with majority state-owned capital, through cable or other technical means;

  • The organisation and production, in its own studios, or in collaboration with domestic or foreign partners, of radio-programmes, recordings, serials, scientific documentaries needed for its own programmes, for exchange with similar organisations in the country or abroad, or for sale;

  • The management of the corporation's own artistic groups, the organisation of concerts, festivals and public shows, as well as of contests with its own artistic groups or in collaboration with other artists; the conclusion of contracts with Romanian and foreign artists and managers for the programmes, concerts and shows it organises, by making payments and collecting cash in keeping with the law;

  • The advertising service - through its own programmes and publications, for the benefit of Romanian or foreign partners;

  • The production of programmes promoting instructive, moral, religious and patriotic education of youth, in collaboration with public and private legal persons, with non-profitable aims;

  • The granting of specialised assistance, on request and in exchange for a fee, for the location parameters and operation of the new radio-stations as well as regarding the efficiency of the technical means set in operation to this purpose;

  • The organisation of joint productions with foreign partners in the field of radio-programmes, as well as production, processing, exchange, export or import of radio-programmes;

  • The representation of the national radio in relation with international bodies, as well as with the public radio stations from other countries, the conclusion of conventions and the establishment of cooperation relations with radio organizations from other countries and with international broadcasting bodies;

  • The production and export of radio-programmes for broadcasting purposes and in accordance with agreements concluded with similar organizations;

  • The direct and mutual information on realities in Romania and in other countries through changes of producers and correspondents;

  • The preservation and depositing of the recordings and of the documents of interest to the national patrimony;

RRBC has free access to public information regarding political, social, cultural, artistic and sport events taking place in Romania. The RRBC co-operates with other public institutions, economic agents, private non-profit legal persons and rely upon the collaboration with the listeners in order to carry out its activity.

RRBC also produce and broadcast, in the conditions of the present law, radio-programmes in Romanian and other languages, addressed to listeners all over the world, in order to promote Romania's image and its domestic and foreign policy, as well as the stand of the Romanian public authorities on the international situation. To that effect, the RRBC has a General Department of Foreign Broadcasts, which provides programmes under the name of "Radio Romania International."

Chapter III - Organisation and functioning

The public radio corporation is run by:

  1. an Administrative Council;

  2. a President - Director General;

  3. a Board of Management.

  4. The Administrative Council is composed of 13 people, one of them filling the position of Chairman. The Chairman of the Administrative Council is also the President - Director General of the RRBC. The Administrative Council carries out its activity under its own regulations.

    • The members are designated by vote by the Parliament after the Permanent Bureaux of the two chambers approve the list containing the proposals: eight from the Parliament, one from the President of Romania, one from the Government and two elected by the specialised staff of the RRBC. The members of the Administrative Council are appointed for a four-year term, and they may not be members of the Parliament and of the Government.

    • Those members of the Administrative Council, who are employed by the RRBC, shall retain the rights and duties arising from the statutes of employee.

    • The members of Administrative Council cannot be members of any other Administrative Council, or participate in trade companies co-operating or in conflict of interests with the RRBC.

    • In the complex decision-making activities, where specialised analysis is necessary, the Council may be joined by non-members collaborators.

    • The Administrative Council's assignments are:

    • to approve the future development of the corporation and the norms concerning the strategy and the structure of the programmes;

    • to supervise the way in which the RRBC fulfils the obligations assumed by the structure of programmes and the broadcasting licence granted by the National Council for Audiovisual;

    • to draw up and approve detailed regulation specifying the functions of public service, the budget plan, the maximum volume of bank credits, the investments to be made, the competence and prerogatives of the units within the corporation, the activity of the management councils of the institution in its structure, the relations between the departments of its own body and of units subordinated within the corporation, etc.;

    • to examine the annual balance sheet and account of profits and losses, and to submit them to approval to the legally abilitated bodies;

    • to examine and approve proposals tabled by the Administrative Council concerning the participation in activities with other companies with Romanian or foreign capital, and in establishing co-operation ties with similar institutions in other countries;

    • to approve the annual report to the Parliament;

    • to approve the regulations on its own organisation and functioning.

  5. The President - Director General - has mainly the following prerogatives and competencies:

    • provides, jointly with the Administrative Council, the current management of the RRBC;

    • orders and supervises the application of resolutions of the Management Board and of the agreements concluded by the corporation;

    • approves, under the law, the hiring and dismissal of the staff, and appoints, with the approval of the Administrative Council, the heads of departments and the heads of the directly subordinated units;

    • approves the sending of delegates or participates him/herself to domestic or international meetings, business or study meetings, which are of interest to the corporation;

    • the P-DG represents, in person or by delegate, the RRBC in the relations with other organizations and bodies in the country, and in the international relations;

  6. The Board of Management - is composed of the deputy general directors, a secretary general, three directors and 1-3 directors of the local radio-studios, all appointed by the Chairman of the Administrative Council after passing the contest organised in this purpose, and of the P-DG and a legal adviser.

    • The Board of Management carries out its activities in compliance with its own regulations on organisation and functioning, approved by the Administrative Council, and has as main prerogatives:

    • to draw up and submit to the Administrative Council the programme strategy, to be examined and approved;

    • to approve the commitment and carrying out of expenditure of any kind, and of trade and finance transactions, within the limits of competence laid down by the Management Board;

    • to examine and approve the work norms, personnel standards, the required offices and jobs that are approved by the Administrative Council;

    • to exert any other competencies that are incumbent on it according to legal provisions and to the organisation and functioning regulations, and approves any other measures concerning the activity of the RRBC and established by the Administrative Council

    To co-ordinate the regional radio broadcasts as well as the national ones, to prevent any activity that might hamper a proper functioning of the corporation, a Commission for programme co-ordination has been set up. It consists of the deputy general directors, co-ordinating the domestic broadcasts, the directors of local stations, three directors from the RRBC and three from the public TV-corporation, nine representatives of the outstanding parts of the civil society, who are due to meet quarterly, and brief each other on their previous activity, and to decide upon the recommendations that are to be made for future programmes. This commission shall permanently co-operate in order to co-ordinate the broadcasts of the two public corporations.

Chapter IV - Financial activities

  • The P-DG of the RRBC is chief-executive of the budget credits for the funds granted to the corporation from the state budget, in observance to the law.

  • The RRBC own revenue is realised from the subscription fee for radio, state subsidies, sources depending on the specific object of activity - such as is advertising, and from donations and sponsorship.

  • The state subsidies allocated for the RRBC must be approved by the Parliament under the annual Budget Law. They are meant to cover the expenses for development - including the hard currency for purchasing radio equipment and spare parts, as well as the funds needed for the use of the broadcasting stations, radio relays, audio circuits, which are due to economic companies from the Romanian Communications system.

  • The producing and transmitting of the broadcasts abroad as well as promoting such activities shall be also ensured from state budget funds.

  • The financial obligations of the RRBC, until the coming into force of the present law, resulting from the hiring of transmitters, radio relays and audio circuits, shall be covered from the state budget, from the budgetary reserve fund - available to the Government, as well as from supplementary revenues.

2.8.3. Romanian Radio Broadcasting Corporation Network

  • Radio Romania News Channel

    • Broadcasts 24 hours per day: news, live broadcasts, utility information, sport, debates, and all kinds of music. Radio Romania News Channel is structured on three types of programmes: news, complex transmissions, other broadcasts.

    • The news section consists of five newsreels per day from Monday to Friday (7:00 a.m., 1:00, 4:00, 7:00, and 10:00 p.m) each of 15-20 minutes, and of news bulletins of 3 to 5 minutes every other hour (every half hour during morning-time, between 5:00 and 6:30 a.m.). On Saturdays and Sundays newsreels are scheduled at 7:00 a.m., 1:00, 7:00, and 10:00 p.m. and the news bulletins are broadcast every 3 or 4 hour.

    • The complex transmissions section includes five so-called 'radio-programmes': 'Matinal' (between 5:00 and 8:00 a.m.), 'Open Studio' (9:00 to 11:00 a.m.), 'Post Meridian' (1:20 to 3:00 p.m.), 'The Pulse of the Day' (4:00 to 8:00 p.m.), and '24 Hours' (10:20 to 11:00 p.m.). In each of these five radio-programmes you may find everything from news and utility information to education, culture, sport and music (pop, rock, jazz, opera, pieces of concerts, Romanian folk music), from despatches sent by RRBC's correspondents and special envoys abroad and in country, to live debates with politicians, artists, athletes, or ordinary people.

    • 'Other broadcasts' section includes music dedications, programmes about ethnical minorities, theatre, live broadcasts from concerts, live sport transmissions.

    • Radio Romania News Channel is broadcast on 24 medium wave and one long wave stations and on 20 FM stations - covering the whole territory of the country, but is also transmitted on four short wave frequencies to Europe, Middle East and Northern Africa to Romanians living there or to foreigners knowing Romanian language.

    • An opinion pole from July 1996 shows that Radio Romania News Channel is still the most popular programme in the country, with around 60% audience.

  • Radio Romania Culture Channel

    • Broadcasts 16 hours every day (from 8:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m.), mainly cultural programmes: classical music, opera, live concerts, live religious prayers, literature, theatre. You may also listen very interesting debates or educational programmes about culture, music, politics and science, or to foreign languages lessons.

    • The programme covers just the Romanian territory and it is broadcast on 10 medium wave stations and on 30 FM stations.

    • Being a cultural channel with high intellectual standards it is normal that its audience is not too big: just around 6-8%.

  • Radio Romania Youth - Stereo Channel

    • Is the single national stereo programme of the RRBC, broadcasting 17 hours per day (from 8:00 a.m. to 1:00 a.m. the next day) from Sunday to Friday, and 21 hours on Saturdays (between 8:00 a.m. Saturday to 5:00 a.m. Sunday).

    • There are 30 FM stations broadcasting this channel and covering almost all Romanian territory.

    • Radio Romania Youth - Stereo proposes, exclusively for young people and for children: contests, debates and educational programmes about culture, history, science, music, and everyday life issues, interactive programmes, rock and pop music, stories for children, theatre and live spectacles.

    • An important part of the broadcasting time is allotted to domains such as: science fiction, parapsychology, transcendental meditation, yoga, scientific discoveries.

    • There are also some very popular programmes called 'Clubs', addressed to students, travelling youngsters, adolescents, or about arts, rock music, etc.

    • As in the case of the cultural channel, the youth channel has an audience of about 6-8%.

  • Radio Romania Music Channel is the newest channel with RRBC but it does not have yet its own frequencies. This is why it uses now the other three national channels' frequencies to provide its productions: music of all types, concerts, opera, cabaret, musical dedications.

  • The Village Antenna

    • Broadcasts six hours per day in two time segments: from 6:00 to 9:00 a.m. and between 7:00 and 10:00 p.m., on two medium wave frequencies and on one FM station.

    • The programme addresses to the peasants living in the Southern and South-Eastern regions of Romania - constituting the principal agricultural area of the country.

    • It reflects the life of the Romanian village with all its aspects: farming, culture, religion, social problems, legal issues, health, etc. The programme provides also news and information useful for farmers from competent sources such as the Ministry for Agriculture and Alimentation, the Health Ministry, the National Association of Private Farmers, the Academy for Agricultural and Forest Sciences or the National Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology. The Village Antenna proposes interactive debates on agricultural issues, with the participation of specialists, scientists, ministers and, of course, peasants interested in the issues discussed.

    • The Village Antenna offers the same time exclusively Romanian folk music, which the peasants are very fond of.

    • The programme is available from Monday to Saturday. Its audience goes from 3-4% during summertime to 7-8% in wintertime. This percentage results from reporting the audience to the whole territory of the country. If considering just the area covered by the Village Antenna the percentage rises to over 40%.

    • The editors working with the Village Antenna are producing on the other hand two weekly programmes for Radio Romania News Channel that broadcast them on Sunday mornings: 'Good Morning Triefties!' and 'The Village's Life'.

  • The Bucharest Antenna

    • Broadcasts 16 hours per day, partially stereo, on two FM frequencies, one Eastern and the other Western standard.

    • The programme offers to listeners in Bucharest area: news every hour, utility information, interactive broadcasts, musical dedications, music of all sorts (but mainly rock, pop, heavy metal and jazz), programmes in Hungarian and German, news bulletins in English, French, German, Spanish, Italian, Hungarian and Russian.

    • To deal with the extremely strong concurrence from the twelve or so private radio-stations in the capital-city, the Bucharest Antenna developed a very efficient network of reporters specialised in gathering utility information from the competent institutions. This information refers to: water, heating, gas and electricity distribution, weather, local transport, street maintenance, health care, and many other day-to-day problems that someone must face frequently while living in a city with a population of over 2.5 million.

  • Territorial Studios of RRBC

    • There are six territorial (regional) studios of RRBC, located in Cluj, Timisoara, Iasi, Targu Mures, Craiova and Constantza. The broadcasting hours for these six stations and the languages used are the following ones:

      1. Radio Cluj -- 15 hours per day from Monday to Sunday, in Romanian and Hungarian.

      2. Radio Timisoara -- 16 hours every day, in Romanian, German, Hungarian, Serbo-Croatian, Bulgarian, Czech and Slovakian.

      3. Radio Iasi -- 16 hours per day from Monday to Friday, and 14 hours per day on Saturdays and Sundays, in Romanian.

      4. Radio Targu Mures -- 15 hours per day from Monday to Friday, and 13 hours per day on Saturdays and Sundays, in Romanian, Hungarian and German.

      5. Radio Craiova -- 13 hours per day from Monday to Saturday, and 7 hours on Sundays, in Romanian.

      6. Radio Constantza -- 9 hours per day in Romanian, Russian, Armenian, Greek, Turkish, German and Tartar.

    • Their programmes are focusing mainly on local issues, Romanian folk music and broadcasts in the languages of the minorities living in the respective areas.

    • The programmes are covering news, utility information, farming problems, education, culture, music of all kinds, sports. Interactive programmes are very popular with the territorial studios, the same being the case with the musical dedications programmes.

    • The territorial studios broadcast also live four out of the five newsreels produced daily by Radio Romania News Channel.

    • The weekly audience of the regional public stations is now of about 24%.

  • Radio Holidays

    • It is the special summer programme of RRBC, broadcast from Mamaia resort, near the town of Constantza on the Black Sea Coast, for tourists coming on sea-side holidays.

    • The station gets on air every day from May to October in Romanian, English, French, German, Italian, Spanish and Russian, with news, utility information, contests, music, advertising and announcements.

  • Radio Romania International

    • Broadcasts daily on four programmes simultaneously, on medium and short wave stations, in 16 languages. Its 58 daily programmes totals 35 hours of broadcast. The channel is sponsored by the Romanian government.

    • Here are some relevant data about the amount of broadcasting hours sent on air in a year by Radio Romania International:

      • 1968 -- 9,699 hours in 13 languages.
      • 1987 -- 10,807 hours in 13 languages.
      • 1990 -- 12,558 hours in 14 languages.
      • 1993 -- 12,740 hours in 14 languages.
      • 1995 -- 13,505 hours in 16 languages.

    • The 16 languages in which Radio Romania International broadcasts today are: Romanian, Macedonian-Romanian, Hungarian, English, French, German, Spanish, Arabic, Italian, Portuguese, Russian, Greek, Turkish, Serbo-Croatian, Ukrainian and Iranian.
    • The programmes focus on Romanian news and realities, Romanian culture, history, traditions and music, but also on relevant international political, economic and social events that are presented from a Romanian perspective.


    The variations of Radio Romania Broadcasting Corporation's audience in comparison with other private or foreign broadcasters, in the period March 1994 - July 1996, is shown in the following table:

  • The figures represent, in percentages, the respondents who have listened to the radio-stations below mentioned over last 7 days, before the opinion poll was realised.

  • The radio-stations are ranked according to the March 1994 poll.

57 65 64 60 65 67 62 66 69 71
22 26 25 26 28 34 28 27 19 29
5 8 6 8 9 10 12 9 10 11
30 26 26 15 19 15 12 13 17 10
A foreign
4 6 5 3 6 5 7 5 8 8
5 8 6 6 6 11 16 6 11 7
3 6 4 5 3 7 8 2 6 6
stat. in
4 3 6 3 5 5 4 3 7 4
85 87 88 85 -- -- -- -- -- --

2.8.4. Perspectives

  1. Reorganization

    • A vast reorganization programme is to be started soon in order to modernise the corporation and to prepare it for the next century.
    • The principal changes will involve a vertical / horizontal scheme of organization, based on the actual channel-structure. The existing four national channels of the RRBC will form the vertical pillars of the corporation. Horizontally there will be a number of editorial offices specialised on news, politics, culture, science, music, education etc.. that will provide the channels with the necessary programmes and information.
    • The details of these important changes are still to be finalised.

  2. Other major directions of action:

    • The RRBC will relay on the solidarity of its members, on a team-work principle and will permanently take into account the beneficiary of all its initiatives: the Romanian listener.
    • Two major requirements will be taken into consideration:

      1. to ensure that RRBC complies with international broadcasting regulations and to explain the consequences of its participation within European organizations;
      2. to make extremely rapid technological changes by the end of the century, and in particular to introduce digital technology and to create flowing information streams.

    • In order to define its overall strategy and to develop different specific activities, RRBC will further appeal to experienced EBU members' knowledge and to prestigious broadcasters such as the BBC, the VOA, CNN or Radio France.
    • A special attention will be paid to the News Agency RADOR, that will be created soon on the basis of the Monitoring Service of the RRBC, that will continue to represent an important source for financial growth and increased credibility.
    • The RRBC will try to improve the legislative framework that establishes the activity of electronic media.
    • The age of passive radio being gone, RRBC will increase the number of interactive broadcasts in which listeners can break in and dialogue with the guests and the producers.
    • The RRBC wants to become a real official monitor of Romanian language through the quality of its broadcasts.
    • Taking into consideration the precarious condition of the building hosting now the RRBC, it is necessary that the Board of the Corporation should take the responsibility to ensure the quick finish of the New Radio House building.

  3. RRBC's staff:

    • Concerning its people, RRBC will focus on the young generation of journalists, on employment and training, keeping however its traditions and goals.
    • A 'summer university' for training young journalists from public local and regional radio-stations has just been created (5 August 1996) in the 'Faculty for Literature, History and Journalism' of the 'Lucian Blaga' University in Sibiu - central Romania. This project was possible due to the collaboration with Radio Netherlands and with the Training Centre for radio and TV staff from Hilversum - Netherlands. It is the first such kind of university in Europe. The teachers are coming from the Netherlands, Great Britain and Australia. Each year 50 young radio-journalists will follow this 'summer university'.
    • The same day - 5 August 1996, in Sibiu's 'Lucian Blaga' University started broadcasting the first radio-school station in Romania, where the young radio-journalists are now able to practise 'live' their knowledge in this field.
    • An 'International Centre for Training', destined to the staff working in radio-broadcasting will be created in Sibiu in the near future with the help of the University 'Lucian Blaga' in town and again of Radio Netherlands.

  4. The Professional Code of the RRBC (draft)

    1. The RRBC is an information, education and entertainment public service conscious of the fact that the right to be informed is a fundamental right of mankind, implying rights and duties, liberties and responsibilities.

    2. Throughout its news, cultural and entertainment programmes, the RRBC assures free expression of ideas, options, as well as free information and communication, in keeping with constitutional rights and liberties. Any kind of censorship is forbidden. Honest, in good faith, professionally done selection of information in the news programmes must not be considered as censorship.

    3. RRBC's broadcasts are at the listeners' service, at the service of proper, quick and impartial information, education and entertainment.

    4. RRBC is free from any outside political or financial interference, and avoids internal pressure.

    5. RRBC promotes in good faith, and in a competent and exacting way, national and world-wide values, it disseminates truth, national interest, democratic values, human dignity, social justice and good taste. When it comes to defending democratic values, RRBC must not stand on a neutral position, it has to contribute to the prevention of crisis moments, to the facilitation of mutual understanding, tolerance and trust, both in the country and throughout the world.

    6. RRBC will not promote violence, hatred, crime, disorder, chaos, vulgarity, pornography, slander or violation of rights of the private life. Neither shall we encourage, in any way, separatist causes, irredentism or emigration.

    7. RRBC will obtain its information by legal and moral ways.

    8. Broadcasting of the news will be done by respecting the truth, by mentioning the sources. The news will be thoroughly checked and facts must be impartially presented. There will be a distinction made between news and options. News is information, facts, data, while options are the expression of thoughts, beliefs or judgement upon the news, honestly and correctly expressed from an ethical point of view. Personal points of view will be identified as such.

    9. Options under the form of commentaries regarding events or acts of persons or institutions must not mean avoiding reality.

    10. RRBC is morally and entirely responsible for the content of news, cultural and entertainment programmes. If someone is accused, RRBC will offer him/her the possibility to answer, to present his/her own arguments, when important problems of political, economic and social life are concerned. RRBC has the right to give an answer, if considered necessary or if accusations injure its statute.

    11. On request of people concerned, all information and opinions which prove to be false or wrong will be immediately retracted and rectified on an compulsory basis.

    12. RRBC is a means of information, which does not represent the public opinion, or stand for functions characteristic of public opinion authority or of cultural and educational institutions.

    13. The RRBC's statute is incompatible with any press campaign at the service of party or private interests.

    14. RRBC will respect the right of the individual to private life. It is very well aware of the fact that persons with public functions are entitled to a private life, the only exception being when this life could have consequences on public life.

    15. In the news and options it is broadcasting, RRBC must respect the "not guilty" presumption principle, especially when cases that are being tried are concerned and one must avoid the delivering of a verdict.

    16. RRBC defends and protects its employees when they are discharging their prerogatives honestly and correctly.

    17. RRBC respects the independence and the responsibility of any contributor and the liberty of exercising journalism.

    18. During their entire activity RRBC's employees will prove attachment to the institution, disseminating the true image of RRBC.

    19. RRBC employees will pay attention to the confidential character of the information sources, as well as of the information they come across, during the exercise of their prerogatives.

    20. RRBC's employees will never take advantage of their statute, in order to get advantages or satisfaction of own interests.

    21. In the broadcasts, RRBC's employees cannot promote their own political sympathies or their points of view as regards of political or other conflicts.

    22. In order to ensure quality of work and independence, radio employees must get good wages, adequate work conditions and instruments.

    23. In all its broadcasts RRBC is preocupied by the correct use of the Romanian language.

    24. Breaking of the already mentioned rules entails administrative, material, penal or civil responsibility.

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