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Ukraine And European Security - International Mechanisms
As Non-Military Options For National Security Of Ukraine.
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Chapter 4. "Evolutionary" Approach" - Ukraine And European International Establishments.
Section 5. Ukraine and Western Europe - Relations with the European Union and the WEU.
5.1. European 'Ukrainian' Policy Vision - Bilateral Relations.
By the moment of the presidential elections in July 1994 Ukrainian foreign policy to Western Europe had met not only difficulties with establishing close cooperation with European international institutions, but also the reluctance of certain Western states to engage in close relations with Kiev.
In reality, the links of Ukraine with individual countries of Western Europe were limited to the agreements on friendship and cooperation. Such agreements were concluded with France, the United Kingdom, Germany, Spain, Italy - with almost all the countries of the EU; and all of these agreements concentrated on rather modest forms of political and economic cooperation, cultural transactions and humanitarian help.
The prevailing image of Ukraine in the West, as a state with an unfavorable atmosphere was molded primarily by such country's characteristics as an unstable posture on the nuclear weapons' question and Chernobyl nuclear power station, absence of cridible economic reformation and tensions in relations with Russia.
One can also assert that the West has its own Ukrainian problem and there are several objective preconditions for that. The country's non-state past produced serious lack of information about Ukraine, which has always been overshadowed by Russia.
A well-rooted in the Western academic tradition historical concept to divide nations on the state and non-state nations,(308) of which only the former ones deserved studying, had important implications for Western leaders, who "have for long considered political developments in Russia as crucial, whereas Ukrainian politics, as ...something happening on the fringes, and hence of lesser importance".(309) Thus, it was not until recently that Ukraine received attention from the scholars and policy-planners in Western Europe - it took considerable time for them, "to grasp the fact, that the Soviet Union has spawned several independent non-Russian states."(310)
In addition, given the legacy of history, Ukraine has never had a stronger ally, which could support it on European political arena. And whereas Central Europeans could even choose their ways to protect itself - through bi-lateral or multi-lateral ties with Western Europe - Ukraine had to relay only on its own capacity. All these factors have considerably delayed the development of Ukraine's relations with Western countries and particularly with the European Union.