NATO - North Atlantic Treaty Organization

  • NATO Airborne Early Warning and Control Programme Management Organisation (NAPMO)
    NATO Airborne Early Warning and Control Programme Management Organisation (NAPMO) The NAPMO is responsible for the management and implementation of the NATO Airborne Early Warning and Control (NAEW&C) programme – a fleet of special, ‘early warning’ aircraft. The NAEW&C programme currently consists of 18 E-3A aircraft and three trainer aircraft. It provides the Alliance with an immediately available airborne surveillance, warning and command capability. This capability has been used extensively in NATO operations, as well as to protect major public events in NATO member countries. What are its authority, tasks, and responsibilities? The NAPMO was established by a NATO Charter on 8 December 1978 as a NATO Production and Logistic Organisation. This gives it the status of a formal subsidiary organisation of NATO under the provisions of the 1951 Ottawa Agreement on the Status of NATO National Representatives and International Staff. It is responsible for all aspects of the management, implementation and modernisation of the NAEW&C programme. It reports directly to the North Atlantic Council, NATO’s principal decision-making body. Who participates? The NAPMO's members are the 15 countries that contribute to the AEW&C programme: Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, and the United States.  The United Kingdom has its own fleet of E-3D AWACS aircraft which it provides to the NAPMO as a 'contribution in kind'. Both the United States and France have their own national AWACS fleets.  France attends NAPMO meetings as an observer, however its E-3F AWACS aircraft participate in joint operations with NATO counterparts on a case-by-case basis. How does it work in practice? NATO’s Airborne Early Warning and Control Programme Management Organisation consists of a Board of Directors, supported by a Programme Management Agency (NAPMA) which is located at Brunssum, the Netherlands; a Legal, Contracts and Finance Committee; an Operations, Technical and Support Committee; and, a Depot Level Maintenance Steering Group. Each participating country is represented on the Board of Directors, which normally meets twice a year in formal session, and also in an optional special Spring meeting when required. Representatives of the NATO Secretary General, the Alliance’s two Strategic Commanders, the NATO AEW&C Force Commander and other NATO bodies, if required, also attend meetings of the Board of Directors, Committees, and Steering Group, but have no voting rights. Decisions are taken on the basis of consensus among the participating countries. The General Manager of the NAPMA is responsible for the day-to-day management of acquisition related activities in support of the NAEW&C Programme.
  • NATO Air Command and Control System (ACCS)
    NATO Air Command and Control System (ACCS) The NATO Air Command And Control System (ACCS) is intended to combine, and automate, at the tactical level the planning and tasking and execution of all air operations. When operational, the ACCS will provide a unified air command and control system, enabling NATO’s European nations (including new Alliance members) to seamlessly manage all types of air operations over their territory, and beyond. NATO members will be able to integrate their air traffic control, surveillance, air mission control, airspace management and force management functions. ACCS will incorporate the most modern technologies, and will make full use of up-to-date data link communications. Through its open architecture, the system is already evolving to meet emerging operational requirements such as those associated with theatre missile defence, and it will be able to adapt to a changing operational environment such as network centric warfare.
  • NATO Air Traffic Management Committee
    NATO Air Traffic Management Committee The NATO Air Traffic Management Committee (ATMC) is the senior civil-military NATO body with responsibility for air traffic management (ATM). The ATMC ensures NATO’s interface with civil aviation authorities and is charged with the production, dissemination, monitoring and enforcement of Allied ATM standards, guidance and policy. It also advises the North Atlantic Council (NAC) on all matters related to airspace use and ATM in support of Alliance objectives. Role and responsibilities The ATMC’s main focus is to provide ATM support to NATO missions, operations and exercises. Most notably, this vital support is being provided in the Balkans, Afghanistan and Libya, where NATO is working alongside national governments, international and regional bodies and organisations to rebuild and rehabilitate the countries’ respective aviation sectors. To ensure that Allied forces train and prepare adequately for their contribution to operations, the ATMC monitors aviation modernisation developments. It takes appropriate action to safeguard NATO’s requirements regarding airspace utilisation and evaluates the impact of new ATM and communications, navigation and surveillance (CNS) developments on NATO’s operational capability. The Committee regularly tasks its technical working body, known as the Air Traffic Management-Communications, Navigation and Surveillance Working Group (ATM-CNS WG) to develop consolidated NATO views, policies, doctrines and guidance on ATM matters. This approach helps the ATMC contribute to ATM harmonisation, interoperability and standardisation for manned and un-manned aircraft. Further, the ATMC helps NATO contribute to security in the civil/military aviation domain through a joint NATO/Eurocontrol ATM Security Coordinating Group. Main participants The ATMC is chaired by the Director of the Aerospace Capabilities Directorate in NATO’s Defence Investment (DI) Division. The day-to-day work of the Committee is supported by DI. Airspace use and ATM require global coordination. Thus, the ATMC ensures cooperation, dialogue and partnership with other national, regional and international aviation organisations and bodies. Representatives of the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO), Eurocontrol, European Commission Air transport, the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and other aviation stakeholders regularly attend ATMC meetings and provide advice and support. Dedicated sessions of the committee take place in cooperation with partner countries. In particular, the ATMC also works with the involvement and support of NATO’s Euro-Atlantic and Mediterranean Dialogue partners.
  • NATO and Afghanistan
    NATO and Afghanistan
  • NATO and the fight against terrorism
    NATO and the fight against terrorism http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/76706.htm
  • NATO committees
    NATO committees NATO committees form an indispensable part of the Alliance’s decision-making process. They provide the framework within which member countries can exchange information on a variety of subjects, consult with each other and take decisions made on the basis of consensus and common accord. Each member country is represented at all levels of the committee structure in the fields of NATO activity in which they participate. Every day, national experts travel to NATO Headquarters in Brussels to attend committee meetings held with delegates from the national representations based at NATO Headquarters and with staff from the International Secretariat and the International Military Staff. NATO has an extensive network of committees, covering everything from political, to technical or operational issues .. The principle of consensus decision-making is applied at each and every level of the committee structure, from the top political decision-making body to the most obscure working group. NATO committees were reviewed in June 2010 so as to help NATO respond more effectively to security concerns and to the need for more integrated, flexible working procedures. The principal committees The North Atlantic Council (NAC) is the principal political decision-making body within NATO and the only committee that was established by the Alliance’s founding Treaty. Under Article 9, the NAC is invested with the authority to set up "such subsidiary bodies as may be necessary" for the purposes of implementing the Treaty. Over the years, the Council has established a network of committees to facilitate the Alliance’s work and deal with all subjects on its agenda. The principal NATO committees are the NAC, the Nuclear Planning Group (NPG) and the Military Committee. The Defence Planning Committee (DPC), which was also one of NATO’s top decision-making bodies, was dissolved under the June 2010 committee reform and its functions taken over by the NAC. Committees reporting to the NAC In addition to the NAC, the NPG and the Military Committee, there are a number of committees that report directly to the Council. Some of these are themselves supported by working groups, especially in areas such as defence procurement. As part of the NATO reform process initiated in June 2010, which focused on the NATO Command Structure and NATO Agencies, NATO Committees were also reviewed. As such, committees reporting to the NAC now include the following: Deputies Committee Political and Partnerships Committee Defence Policy and Planning Committee Committee on Proliferation C3 Board Operations Policy Committee High Level Task Force on Conventional Arms Control Verification Coordinating Committee Conference of National Armaments Directors Committee for Standardization Logistics Committee Resource Policy and Planning Board Air and Missile Defence Committee NATO Air Traffic Management Committee Civil Emergency Planning Committee Committee on Public Diplomacy Council Operations and Exercises Committee Security Committee Civilian Intelligence Committee Archives Commitee Additionally, there are institutions of cooperation, partnership and dialogue that underpin relations between NATO and other countries. Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council NATO-Russia Council NATO-Ukraine Commission NATO-Georgia Commission Evolution With the exception of the NAC, committees were gradually established after the signing of the Washington Treaty on 4 April 1949 (for further information on how the committee structure evolved, see “NATO: The first five years, 1949-1954”, by Lord Ismay). From time to time, the NATO committee structure is reviewed and reorganised so as to make it more efficient, responsive and relevant to NATO’s current priorities. This includes eliminating obsolete committees and creating new bodies. Since its creation in 1949, the Alliance has undergone three major committee restructurings. The first took place in 1990 after the end of the Cold War, and the second in 2002, in the wake of the attacks of September 11, 2001. The third and most recent committee review was initiated in June 2010 as part of a broader reform effort that touched on all of the Alliance’s structures: the military command structure and its Organisations and Agencies.
  • NATO Communications and Information Agency (NCI Agency), The
    The NATO Communications and Information Agency (NCI Agency) The NATO Communications and Information Agency – or NCI Agency – acts as NATO’s principal Consultation, Command and Control (C3) deliverer and Communications and Information Systems (CIS) provider. It also provides IT-support to NATO Headquarters, the NATO Command Structure and NATO Agencies. Main tasks and responsibilities NCI Agency delivers advanced Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) technology and communications capabilities in support of Alliance decision-makers and missions, including addressing new threats and challenges such as cyber and missile defence. This includes the acquisition of technology, experimentation, the promotion of interoperability, systems and architecture design and engineering, as well as testing and technical support. It also provides communication and information systems (CIS) services in support of Alliance missions. In addition, the Agency conducts the central planning, system engineering, implementation and configuration management for the NATO Air Command and Control System (ACCS) Programme. NCI Agency also provides co-operative sharing and exchange of information between and among NATO and other Allied bodies using interoperable national and NATO support systems. The Agency’s structure The NCI Agency, led by a General Manager, is headquartered in Brussels, Belgium. It has major locations in The Hague, the Netherlands, and Mons, Belgium, in addition to over 30 offices in Afghanistan and with major customers. The Agency is the executive arm of the NATO Communication and Information Organisation (NCIO), which aims to achieve maximum effectiveness in delivering C3 capabilities  to stakeholders, while ensuring their coherence and interoperability, and ensuring the provision of secure CIS services at minimum cost to Allies – individually and collectively. NCIO is managed by an Agency Supervisory Board (ASB) composed of representative from each NATO nation. The ASB oversees the work of the NCIO. After consulting with the NATO Secretary General, NCIO’s ASB appoints the General Manager of the Agency. All NATO nations are members of the NCIO. The ASB, which reports to the North Atlantic Council (NAC), issues directives and makes general policy decisions to enable NCIO to carry out its work. Its decisions on fundamental issues such as policy, finance, organization and establishment require unanimous agreement by all member countries. Evolution At the Lisbon Summit in November 2010, NATO Heads of State and Government agreed to reform the 14 existing NATO Agencies, located in seven member states. In particular, Allies agreed to streamline the agencies into three major programmatic themes: procurement, support, and communications and information. The reform aims to enhance efficiency and effectiveness in the delivery of capabilities and services, to achieve greater synergy between similar functions and to increase transparency and accountability. As part of the reform process, the NCI Agency was created on 1 July 2012 through the merger of the NATO C3 Organisation, NATO Communication and Information Systems Services Agency (NCSA), NATO Consultation, Command and Control Agency (NC3A), NATO Battleground Information, Collection and Exploitation System Agency (BICES), NATO Air Command and Control System Management Agency (NACMA), and NATO Headquarters Information and Communication Technology Service (ICTM).
  • NATO funding
    NATO funding Member countries make direct and indirect contributions to the costs of running NATO and implementing its policies and activities. The greatest part of these contributions is indirect and comes through participation in NATO-led operations and missions, and in efforts to ensure that national armed forces are interoperable with those of other member countries. Member countries incur the deployment costs involved whenever they volunteer forces to participate in NATO-led operations. With a few exceptions, member countries also pay for their own military forces and military capabilities. Direct contributions to budgets managed by NATO are made by members in accordance with an agreed cost-sharing formula based on relative Gross National Income. These contributions represent a very small percentage of each member’s overall defence budget, and finance the expenditures of NATO’s integrated structures. Direct contributions generally follow the principle of common funding, that is to say, member countries pool resources within a NATO framework. There are three budgets that come under common funding arrangements: the civil budget; the military budget, and the NATO Security Investment Programme. Common funding covers collective requirements such as the NATO command structure, NATO-wide air defence, command and control systems or Alliance-wide communications systems, which are not the responsibility of any single member. Projects can also be jointly funded, which means that the participating countries can identify the requirements, the priorities and the funding arrangements, but NATO provides political and financial oversight. Financial management of these different types of contributions is structured to ensure that the ultimate control of expenditure rests with the member countries supporting the cost of a defined activity, and is subject to consensus among them. The North Atlantic Council, NATO’s highest political decision-making body, approves NATO budgets and investments, and exercises oversight over NATO financial management. The Council takes into account resource considerations in its decision-making. The Resource Policy and Planning Board (RPPB) advises the Council on resource policy and allocation. For example, when the Council decided to undertake the Libya operation, it did so with the benefit of a full evaluation of the costs from Allied Command Operations and the RPPB. The Budget Committee and the Investment Committee, which report to the RPPB, also review and approve planned expenditures. Voluntary, indirect funding of NATO When the North Atlantic Council unanimously decides to engage in an operation, there is no obligation for each and every country to contribute to the operation unless it is an Article 5 collective defence operation, in which case expectations are different. In all cases, contributions are voluntary and vary in form and scale, from for instance a few soldiers to thousands of troops, and from armoured vehicles, naval vessels or helicopters to all forms of equipment or support, medical or other ¹. These voluntary contributions are offered by individual Allies and are taken from their overall defence capability to form a combined Alliance capability. The two per cent defence expenditure guideline In 2006, NATO member countries agreed to commit a minimum of two per cent of their Gross Domestic Product (GDP) to spending on defence. This guideline principally serves as an indicator of a country’s political will to contribute to the Alliance’s common defence efforts. Additionally, the defence capacity of each member country has an important impact on the overall perception of the Alliance’s credibility as a politico-military organisation. The combined wealth of the non-US Allies, measured in GDP, exceeds that of the United States. However, non-US Allies together spend less than half of what the United States spends on defence. This imbalance has been a constant, with variations, throughout the history of the Alliance and more so since the tragic events of 11 September 2001, after which the United States significantly increased its defence spending. The gap between defence spending in the United States compared to Canada and European members combined has therefore increased. Today, the volume of the US defence expenditure effectively represents 73 per cent of the defence spending of the Alliance as a whole. This does not mean that the United States covers 73 per cent of the costs involved in the operational running of NATO as an organisation, including its headquarters in Brussels and its subordinate military commands, but it does mean that there is an over-reliance by the Alliance as a whole on the United States for the provision of essential capabilities, including for instance, in regard to intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance; air-to-air refuelling; ballistic missile defence; and airborne electronic warfare. The effects of the financial crisis and the declining share of resources devoted to defence in many Allied countries have exacerbated this imbalance and also revealed growing asymmetries in capability among European Allies. France, Germany and the United Kingdom together represent more than 50 per cent of the non-US Allies defence spending, which creates another kind of over-reliance within Europe on a few capable European Allies. Furthermore, their defence spending is under increasing pressure, as is that of the United States, to meet deficit and indebtedness reduction targets. With disparities persisting and defence spending generally being reduced, significant and worrying deficiencies in some key capabilities have been revealed. While the two percent of GDP guideline alone is no guarantee that money will be spent in the most effective and efficient way to acquire and deploy modern capabilities, it remains, nonetheless, an important indicator of the political resolve of individual Allies to devote to defence a relatively small, but still significant, level of resources at a time of considerable international uncertainty and economic adversity. The major equipment spending guideline National defence budgets cover essentially three categories of expenditures: personnel expenses and pensions; research, development and procurement of defence equipment; and, lastly, operations, exercises and maintenance. Budget allocation is a national, sovereign decision, but NATO Allies have agreed that at least 20 per cent of defence expenditures should be devoted to major equipment spending, perceived as a crucial indicator for the scale and pace of modernisation. Although investment across the Alliance in the development and procurement of defence equipment rose between 2003 and 2010 as a result of increases in spending by the United States, several other Allies also increased their equipment expenditures to meet the particular modernisation requirements associated with expeditionary operations in Afghanistan and elsewhere. Where expenditures fail to meet the 20 percent guideline, however, there is an increasing risk of block obsolescence of equipment, growing capability and interoperability gaps among Allies, and a weakening of Europe’s defence industrial and technological base. 1. Even though all Allies may not contribute forces to an operation, Allies have agreed that the funding for the deployment of the NATO part of a NATO-led operation would be commonly funded. The direct funding of NATO’s three budgets Direct contributions to NATO come principally in two different forms: common funding and joint funding. They can also come in the form of trust funds, contributions in kind, ad hoc sharing arrangements and donations. Several factors influence the choice of funding source to address a given priority. These include the required level of integration or interoperability, affordability at the national level, the complexity of the system involved, and the potential for economies of scale. Often, a combination of funding sources is used. The principle of common funding When a need for expenditure has been identified, countries in the Resource Policy and Planning Board discuss whether the principle of common funding should be applied – in other words whether the requirement serves the interests of all the contributing countries and should therefore be borne collectively. The criteria for common funding are held under constant review and changes may be introduced as a result of changing circumstances, for instance, the need to support critical requirements in support of Alliance operations and missions. Common funding arrangements principally include the NATO civil and military budgets, as well as the NATO Security Investment Programme (NSIP). These are the only funds where NATO authorities identify the requirements and set the priorities in line with overarching Alliance objectives and priorities. Where military common funding is concerned - the military budget and the NATO Security Investment Programme – the guiding principle for eligibility is the “over and above” rule: “Common funding will focus on the provision of requirements which are over and above those which could reasonably be expected to be made available from national resources.” Member countries contribute to NATO in accordance with an agreed cost-sharing formula based on Gross National Income. The civil budget The civil budget provides funds for personnel expenses, operating costs, and capital and programme expenditure of the International Staff at NATO Headquarters. It is financed from national foreign ministry budgets (in most countries), supervised by the Budget Committee and implemented by the International Staff. The civil budget for 2014 is €217 million. The civil budget is formulated on an objective-based framework, which establishes clear links between NATO’s strategic objectives and the resources required to achieve them. There are four frontline objectives and four support objectives. The frontline objectives comprise support for: active operations; Alliance capabilities; consultation and cooperation with partners; and public relations. The four support objectives consist in: providing support to the consultation process with Allies; maintaining the facilities and site of NATO Headquarters (Headquarters operational environment); governance and regulation through the monitoring of business policies, processes and procedures; and Headquarters security. The military budget This budget covers the operating and maintenance costs of the international military structure. It is composed of over 50 separate budgets, which are financed from national defence budgets (in most countries). It is supervised by the Budget Committee and implemented by the individual budget holders. In all cases, the provision of military staff remains a nationally-funded responsibility. The military budget for 2014 is €1.4 billion. The military budget effectively provides funds for the International Military Staff, the strategic commanders and the NATO Airborne Early Warning and Control (NAEW&C) Force and, more specifically for: the Military Committee, the International Military Staff and military agencies; the two strategic commands and associated command, control and information systems; theatre headquarters for deployed operations and support of critical theatre-level enabling capabilities such as theatre medical capabilities or theatre engineering capabilities; the NATO Standardization Agency, the NATO ACCS Management Agency, the NATO Command and Control Agency and the NATO CIS Services Agency; the NATO static and deployable Combined Air Operations Centres, deployable ARS and radar systems, and deployable HQ communication systems; the Joint Warfare Centre (Norway), the Joint Force Training Centre (Poland), the Joint Analysis & Lessons Learned Centre (Portugal), the NATO Defense College (Italy), the Communications and Information Systems School (Italy), the NATO Programming Centre (Belgium), the Multi-Service Electronic Warfare Support Group (United Kingdom); the Scientific Programme of Work of the NC3A, Allied Command Transformation experimentation funds, the Research and Technology Agency (France) and the NATO Undersea Research Centre (Italy); limited partnership support activities and part of the Military Liaison Offices in Moscow and Kyiv. During a crisis-management operation, when an operational decision with financial implications is taken by the North Atlantic Council (NAC), the Resource Policy and Planning Board (RPPB) is immediately consulted for the availability of funds. Effectively, this means that in the throes of a crisis, the RPPB can at times be in quasi-permanent session, as was sometimes the case for instance during the Libya operation (March-October 2011). The NATO Security Investment Programme The NATO Security Investment Programme (NSIP) covers major construction and command and control system investments, which are beyond the national defence requirements of individual member countries. It supports the roles of the NATO strategic commands by providing installations and facilities such as air defence communication and information systems, military headquarters for the integrated structure and for deployed operations, and critical airfield, fuel systems and harbour facilities needed in support of deployed forces. The NSIP is financed by the ministries of defence of each member country and is supervised by the Investment Committee. Projects are implemented either by individual host countries or by different NATO agencies and strategic commands, according to their area of expertise. The 2014 ceiling for the NSIP is €7 billion. Joint funding Joint funding arrangements are structured forms of multinational funding within the terms of an agreed NATO charter. The participating countries still identify the requirements, the priorities and the funding arrangements, but NATO has visibility and provides political and financial oversight. Joint funding arrangements typically lead to the setting-up of a management organisation within a NATO agency. NATO agency activities range from the development and production of fighter aircraft or helicopters to the provision of logistic support or air defence communication and information systems. NATO agencies also coordinate research and development activities or are active in the fields of standardization and intelligence-sharing. Jointly funded programmes vary in the number of participating countries, cost-share arrangements and management structures. Other forms of funding In addition to common funding and joint funding, some projects can take the form of trust fund arrangements, contributions in kind, ad hoc sharing arrangements and donations. The most important trust fund is the one supporting the sustainment of the Afghan National Security Forces. Management and control Financial management within NATO is structured to ensure that the ultimate control of expenditure rests with the member countries supporting the cost of a defined activity, and is subject to consensus among them. Under the overall authority of the NAC, various bodies exercise managerial control over all four of the principal elements of the Organization’s financial structure: the International Staff, financed by the civil budget; the international military structure, financed by the military budget; the NATO Security Investment Programme; and NATO agencies. When cooperative activities do not involve all member countries, they are, for the most part, managed by NATO production and logistics programmes within NATO agencies. They have their own supervisory boards and boards of directors, as well as finance committees and distinct sources of financing within national treasuries. Financial regulations applied at NATO provide basic unifying principles around which the overall financial structure is articulated. They are approved by the NAC and are complemented by rules and procedures adapting them to specific NATO bodies and programmes. Financial management of the civil and military budgets The civil and military budgets are annual, coinciding with the calendar year. Each budget is prepared under the authority of the head of the respective NATO body and is reviewed by the Budget Committee composed of representatives of contributing member countries, and approved for execution by the NAC. Failure to achieve consensus before the start of the financial year entails non-approval of the budget and the financing of operations, under the supervision of the Budget Committee, through provisional allocations limited to the level of the budget approved for the preceding year. This regime may last for six months, after which the NAC is required to decide either to approve the budget or to authorise continuation of interim financing. When the budget has been approved, the head of the NATO body has discretion to execute it through the commitment and expenditure of funds for the purposes authorised. This discretion is limited by different levels of constraint prescribed by the Organization’s financial regulations regarding such matters as recourse to competitive bidding for contracts for the supply of goods and services, or transfers of credits to correct over- or under-estimates of the funding required. Financial management of the NATO Security Investment Programme Implementation of the NATO Security Investment Programme starts from capability packages. These packages identify the assets available to and required by NATO military commanders to fulfil specified tasks. They assess common-funded supplements (in terms of capital investment and recurrent operating and maintenance costs) as well as the civilian and military manpower required to accomplish the task. They are reviewed by the RPPB and then approved by the NAC. Once they are approved, authorisation for individual projects can move forward under the responsibility of the Investment Committee. The “host nation” (a term which refers to either the country on whose territory the project is to be implemented, or a NATO agency or strategic command responsible for implementing a project) prepares an authorisation request. Once the Committee has agreed to the project, the host nation can proceed with its final design, contract award and implementation. Unless otherwise agreed by the Investment Committee, the bidding process is conducted among firms from those countries contributing to the project. The financial management system which applies to the NSIP is based on an international financial clearing process. Host nations report on the expenditure foreseen on authorised projects within their responsibility. Following agreement of the forecasts by the Investment Committee, the International Staff calculates the amounts to be paid by each country and to be received by each host nation. Further calculations determine the payment amounts, currencies and which country or NATO agency will receive the funds. Once a project has been completed, it is subject to a joint final acceptance inspection to ensure that the work undertaken is in accordance with the scope of work authorised. As soon as this report is accepted by the Investment Committee, it is added to the NATO inventory. Financial control With respect to the military and civil budgets, the head of the NATO body is ultimately responsible for the correct preparation and execution of the budget. The administrative support for this task is largely entrusted to the Financial Controller of the agency or NATO body. Each Financial Controller has final recourse to the Budget Committee in the case of persistent disagreement with the head of the respective NATO body regarding an intended transaction. The Financial Controller is charged with ensuring that all aspects of execution of the budget conform to expenditure authorisations, to any special controls imposed by the Budget Committee, and to the financial regulations and their associated implementing rules and procedures. He may also, in response to internal auditing, institute such additional controls and procedures as he deems necessary for maintaining accountability. The International Board of Auditors The independent International Board of Auditors for NATO (IBAN) is responsible for auditing the accounts of the different NATO bodies. Its principal task is to provide the NAC and member governments with the assurance that joint and common funds are properly used for the settlement of authorised expenditure and that expenditure is within the physical and financial authorisations granted. The Board’s mandate includes not only financial but also performance audits, which extend its role beyond safeguarding accountability to the review of management practices in general. IBAN is composed of officials normally drawn from the national audit bodies of member countries. These officials are appointed by and responsible to the NAC. Bodies involved The North Atlantic Council approves NATO budgets and investments, and exercises oversight over NATO financial management. It takes into account resource considerations in its decision-making. The RPPB advises the Council on resource policy and allocation. For example, when the Council decided to undertake the Libya operation, it did so with the benefit of a full evaluation of the costs from Allied Command Operations and the RPPB. The Budget Committee and the Investment Committee, which report to the RPPB, also review and approve planned expenditures. The NATO Office of Resources brings together all members of the NATO International Staff working on resource issues. The office provides integrated policy and technical advice to the NAC and the Secretary General, NATO resource committees, and other NATO bodies. The office facilitates agreements on resource matters among member countries. The Resource Policy and Planning Board The Resource Policy and Planning Board (RPPB) is the senior advisory body to the NAC on the management of all NATO resources. It has responsibility for the overall management of NATO’s civil and military budgets, as well as the NATO Security Investment Programme (NSIP) and manpower. Both the Budget Committee and the Investment Committee report to the RPPB. The Budget Committee The Budget Committee is responsible to the Resource Policy and Planning Board for NATO’s civil and military budgets. The civil budget covers all costs related to NATO’s International Staff at NATO Headquarters in Brussels; the military budget covers all costs related to the International Military Staff at NATO Headquarters, the strategic commands and the NATO Airborne Early Warning and Control (NAEW&C) Force. The Investment Committee The Investment Committee is responsible to the Resource Policy and Planning Board for the implementation of the NATO Security Investment Programme (NSIP). The NSIP finances the provision of the installations and facilities needed to support the roles of the two strategic commands – Allied Command Operations and Allied Command Transformation - recognised as exceeding the national defence requirements of individual member countries.
  • NATO-Georgia Commission (NGC)
    NATO-Georgia Commission The NATO-Georgia Commission (NGC) was established in September 2008 to serve as a forum for both political consultations and practical cooperation to help Georgia achieve its goal of membership in NATO. A Framework Document establishing the new body was signed by NATO’s Secretary General and the Georgian Prime Minister on 15 September 2008 in Tbilisi. The inaugural session took place immediately afterwards, during the visit of the North Atlantic Council to Georgia. The NGC aims to deepen political political dialogue and cooperation between NATO and Georgia at all appropriate levels. It also supervises the process set in hand at the Bucharest Summit in April 2008, when the Allies agreed that Georgia will become a NATO member. To this end, the NGC seeks to underpin Georgia’s efforts to take forward its political, economic, and defence-related reforms pertaining to its Euro-Atlantic aspirations for membership in NATO, with a focus on key democratic and institutional goals. Another of the NGC’s goals is to coordinate Alliance efforts to assist Georgia in recovering from the August 2008 conflict with Russia. Participation All NATO member states and Georgia are represented in the NGC, which meets regularly at the level of ambassadors and military representatives, as well as periodically at the level of foreign and defence ministers and chiefs of staff, and occasionally at summit level. Senior level meetings of the NGC are prepared by the Political Committee in NGC format (or NGC PC). Meetings in this format also serve as the site for ongoing exchanges on political and security issues of common interest, and the preparation and assessment of Georgia’s programmes of cooperation with NATO. The work of the NGC The NGC provides a forum for consultation between the Allies and Georgia on the process of reforms in Georgia, NATO’s assistance to that process, and on regional security issues of common concern. In December 2008, NATO foreign ministers decided to further enhance work under the NGC through the development of an Annual National Programme (ANP). The ANP, which was finalised in spring 2009, replaced the Individual Partnership Action Plan (IPAP), which has guided NATO-Georgia cooperation since 2004. The NGC also keeps under review cooperative activities developed in the framework of Georgia’s participation in the Partnership for Peace, as well as in the military-to-military sphere.
  • NATO Information and Documentation Centre (NIDC) in Kyiv, Ukraine
    NATO Information and Documentation Centre (NIDC) The continuing development of cooperation between NATO and Ukraine led to the establishment of the NATO Information and Documentation Centre in Ukraine (NIDC) in May 1997. The Centre was inaugurated on the eve of signing the NATO-Ukraine Charter on a Distinctive Partnership, which serves as the founding document for the relationship between NATO and Ukraine. The NIDC is part of the NATO Public Diplomacy Division and was the first information office established by NATO in a Partner country, and open to the general public.  The Centre is housed within the Institute of International Relations courtesy of the Ukrainian government. Staff: Director (Canada/NATO HQ) + locally engaged employees The Centre’s core mission: Enhancing general knowledge and understanding in Ukraine about NATO, its core goals and priorities Promoting awareness in Ukrainian society at large on the various aspects of NATO-Ukraine cooperation Providing Ukrainian citizens and organizations with wide access to NATO’s information materials Assisting Ukraine in implementing the Annual National Programmes Supporting NATO-Ukraine Political Dialogue Holding regular press briefings by the Director and giving interviews on NATO events and developments to the local media Providing NATO produced publications in English, French, Ukrainian and Russian Our Partners: Civil society organizations involved in defence and security issues Ukrainian mass media Universities Government Institutions: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ukrainian Parliament, Cabinet of Ministers, National Security and Defence Council, Presidential Administration, Ministry of Defence, Security Service, Ministry of Emergencies, State Border Guard Service, other institutions   The following reflect the three key areas of the NIDC’s activity, but are not limited to: Information The NIDC provides and shares up-to-date information with all Ukrainian stakeholders on developments in NATO and NATO- Ukraine relations. Communications Projects The NIDC organizes various communications projects, including seminars, video teleconferences, briefings, multimedia projects and interviews aimed at promoting a better understanding on NATO and NATO-Ukraine cooperation. For information on the NIDC and its activities, please visit www.nato.int/nidc . The NIDC also awards grants on a regular basis throughout the year to recognized Ukrainian non-governmental organizations for a variety of initiatives and activities related to NATO and/or NATO-Ukraine relations. For more information and/or an application form, please contact the Centre at nidc@nato.kiev.ua . Visits In order to bring the diverse aspects of NATO-Ukraine cooperation into public view, the NIDC organizes press tours for local Ukrainian media, arranges speaking tours for NATO representatives through Ukraine and supports visits of NATO dignitaries to Ukraine. The NIDC also organizes public information visits to NATO headquarters and SHAPE for various Ukrainian stakeholders, including government representatives, students and academics, journalists, the media and civil society representatives. The visits are aimed at providing Ukrainian citizens with the first-hand opportunity to attend briefings given by NATO representatives, ask questions and exchange views.
  • NATO Information Office in Moscow
    NATO Information Office in Moscow The NATO Information Office in Moscow (NIO) aims to contribute to the development of understanding by the general public of Russia of evolving relations between the Russian Federation and NATO and is the focal point for disseminating information within Russia on the role and function of NATO. It was established on 15 December 2000 and is attached to the Embassy of the Kingdom of Belgium to the Russian Federation. After the establishment of the NATO-Russia Council in May 2002, the Office was also tasked to inform the general public of Russia on the Council’s achievements. What is its authority, tasks and responsibilities? The NIO works in the following areas: Distribution of NATO official information to the general Russian public, including mass media, state agencies, federal and regional legislatures, the military, non-governmental organizations, and educational and research institutions Sponsoring of communication projects, including regional, national and international seminars, conferences and roundtables in the Russian Federation, on European and global security issues, focusing in particular on the role of NATO and on NATO-Russia cooperation; organization of visits for Russian visitors to NATO headquarters and NATO sites,  as well as for NATO representatives to the Russian Federation; providing information on NATO’s educational and scientific programmes for Russian institutions and potential Russian applicants; distribution of printed and electronic information on NATO and Euro-Atlantic security; setting up a web site to inform about activities organized by the NIO and to highlight NATO-Russia related events that take place in Russia. Who participates? The NATO Information Office in Moscow is staffed by a director, who is member of NATO’s International Staff. Other members of the NIO team are Russian nationals. Further details : Address NATO Information Office attached to the Embassy of Belgium Mytnaya Street 3 119049 MOSCOW Russia http://www.nato.int/nio Telephone lines +7 495 937 3640 +7 495 937 3641  Fax lines +7 495 937 38 09 Email : office@nio-moscow.nato.int
  • NATO Liaison Office (NLO) Georgia
    NATO Liaison Office (NLO) Georgia Overview Mission Represent NATO in Georgia Facilitate political/military dialogue and practical cooperation under the NATO-Georgia Commission in support of Georgia’s efforts to join NATO. Enhance civil and military cooperation between NATO and the Government of Georgia in support Euro-Atlantic integration goals described in the Annual National Plan (ANP) Tasks Provide advice and assistance to the Government of Georgia in support of civilian and military reform efforts required for NATO integration. Provide advice to Georgian and NATO authorities on the planning and implementation of cooperation programs and activities Conduct liaison with Georgian, NATO, Allied, and Partner Authorities to enhance cooperation and understanding in pursuit of the NATO/Georgia goal of Georgia becoming a full NATO member. Facilitate NATO and Allied bilateral and multilateral projects, events and visits. Current priorities Strengthen Georgia’s Euro-Atlantic integration reform process: Assist Georgia in planning and implementing the civilian and military reform goals defined in the Annual National Program (ANP) Advise and assist Georgia’s reform of the armed forces in the framework of the PfP Planning and Review Process Support the planning and implementation of military reforms defined in the Georgia annual Work Plan developed by Georgia and the Military Committee Enhance NATO-Georgia political and practical dialogue Engage Georgian leadership at the senior and expert political and military levels Engage and inform Georgian society through intensified public diplomacy outreach to increase public awareness of NATO and NATO-Georgia Relations. Support transformation and democratic oversight of the defence and security sector: Engage parliament and the executive regarding the armed forces; Engage Nongovernmental organizations interested in defence and security oversight in order to strengthen the role of civil society in national security and defence issues NATO programmes in Georgia The fourth NATO Trust Fund project in Georgia was officially launched in May 2013. The proposal is for a 24 month long project with a budget of up to 1.6 million EUR. The aim of the Trust Fund is to conduct Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) clearance from the site of a partially destroyed underground ammunition depot at Skra. In addition, the project will support capability development through continuing the training of military personnel started under the previous Trust Fund project. The Lead Nations of the project are the Czech Republic and Lithuania. In 2009, NATO and Georgia launched the Professional Development Programme with the objective of enhancing the professional skills of civilian officials to strengthen the capacity for effective democratic management and oversight in defence and security institutions. Training and education provided in the framework of this programme is closely aligned to Georgia’s defence and security sector reform objectives outlined in the ANP. General organizational information The NATO Liaison Office was officially opened on 1 October 2010 Current Staff: 14 Head of Office (NATO civilian IS Staff) Deputy (NATO civilian IS Staff); Military Liaison Officer (NATO IMS); 3 national experts (seconded by Poland, Norway and Czech Republic) Georgian local employees 2 NATO Trust Fund Programme Managers 1 NATO Trust Fund Programme Deputy Manager (seconded by the Government of Georgia) 1 NATO Trust Fund Programme officer (seconded by the Government of Georgia) 1 NATO Trust Fund Programme Organizational Manager Contacts: 162 Tsinamdzgvrishvili 0112 Tbilisi Georgia Tel: +995 (32) 293 38 01
  • NATO Liaison Office (NLO) in Ukraine
    NATO Liaison Office (NLO) Ukraine Overview Mission Facilitate practical cooperation under the NATO-Ukraine Commission; Enhance cooperation between NATO and Ukrainian authorities Tasks Liaise: Ukrainian, NATO, Allied, and Partner Authorities Advise: Ukraine and NATO on current and future cooperation Facilitate: Programmes, Projects, Events, Visits Principle Ukrainian Partners Core Executive: the Cabinet of Ministers, the National Security and Defence Council, the Presidential Secretariat Ministry of Foreign Affairs the Verkhovna Rada (Parliament) Ministry of Defence / Armed Forces Security Sector Institutions: the Security Service, the Foreign Intelligence Service, the Ministry of the Interior, the Ministry of Emergencies, the State Border Guard Service Other Ministries: Economy, Industrial Policy, Finance Civil society organizations involved in defence and security issues. Current Priorities Strengthening Ukraine ’s implementation of broad Euro-Atlantic reforms: Assisting Ukraine in planning and implementing the Annual National Programmes (ANPs) Improving inter-agency coordination Enhancing NATO-Ukraine political and practical dialogue Intensive engagement at a senior political level Intensified dialogue on reforms Consultation on national security and regional security issues NATO-Ukraine Joint Working Groups: Defence Reform / Technical Cooperation / Economic Security Supporting transformation and democratic governance of defence and security sector: Parliamentary and executive oversight; Implementing the National Security Strategy; improving national security system Strengthening democratic management: expert engagement and training civil servants (the JWGDR Professional Development Programme) Strengthening impact of civil society on national security and defence issues (the NATO-Ukraine Partnership Network for Civil Society Expertise Development) Supporting operations and building interoperability to face common challenges: KFOR, the Operation Active Endeavor, ISAF, NTM Iraq Effective, interoperable commands & staffs at strategic/operational levels Deployable, interoperable, sustainable capabilities at operational/unit level New security threats, including fight against terrorism and cyber defence Addressing legacy issues: Munitions Destruction, Safety & Security (the NATO PfP Demilitarization Trust Fund Project) Social Protection of Current & Departing Servicemen (the NATO-Ukraine Resettlement Programme) General Founded in April 1999; co-located with the General Staff Euro-Atlantic Integration Directorate Staff of 16: Civilian Head (Poland/NATO HQ); 1 NATO civilian (Estonia); 3 NATO military (Lithuania, Poland, Germany); 4 Ukr civilian + 3 project teams (currently 7 staff) Close co-operation with the NATO Information and Documentation Centre in Kyiv.
  • NATO Network Enabled Capability (NNEC)
    NATO Network Enabled Capability The NATO Network Enabled Capability (NNEC) programme is the Alliance’s ability to federate various capabilities at all levels, military (strategic to tactical) and civilian, through an information infrastructure. But the main objective of the NNEC programme, illustrated by the slogan “Share to Win”, is to initiate a culture change that begins with people. Interacting with each other and sharing information will lead to better situational awareness and faster decision making, which ultimately saves lives, resources and improves collaboration between nations. Components of the policy The networking and information infrastructure (NII) is the supporting structure that enables collaboration and information sharing amongst users and reduces the decision-cycle time. This infrastructure enables the connection of existing networks in an agile and seamless manner. This leads to Information Superiority, which is the ability to get the right information to the right people at the right time. NATO defines information superiority as the operational advantage derived from the ability to collect, process, and disseminate an uninterrupted flow of information while exploiting or denying an adversary’s ability to do the same. The NNEC programme provides various benefits to all levels, military and civilian. Some of these benefits are: . Improved efficiency Drastic increase in interoperability between nations Improved and secure way of sharing information Better information quality Faster decisions and speed of command. Mechanisms NNEC aims to ensure coherence between all projects but will not replace existing projects or programmatic management.  Moreover, one of the goals of NNEC is to re-use, as much as possible, the existing assets of the NATO nations. To this end, NATO’s Allied Command Transformation (ACT) has chosen to divide NNEC in smaller pieces called ‘Coherence Areas’: Operational Concepts and Requirements Implications (OCRI) focused on the operator, Architecture & Services Definition and Specification  (ASDS) focused on architecture, Implementation (IMP), and a steering group, Leadership & Guidance (L&G), to make the necessary link with the political level of NATO. Evolution At the Prague Summit in November 2002, NATO recognized that transformation of the military based upon Information Age principles was essential, and pursued a course of transformation denoted as NATO Network-Enabled Capabilities (NNEC). In November 2003, nine NATO nations (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Spain, The United Kingdom and The United States) signed an arrangement to join in funding a feasibility study on NATO Network Enabled Capability (NNEC) as an important step towards NATO transformation. The study was carried out by the NATO C3 Agency (NC3A). In 2009, the ACT launched an awareness campaign within NATO, as well as in NATO Nations and beyond, to promote the NNEC concept and have it adopted NATO-wide.  Achieving full collaboration and full coherence between the various NATO and NATO Nations projects is the long term goal. NNEC is about people first, then processes, and finally technology.
  • NATO Office of Resources (NOR)
    NATO Office of Resources (NOR) The NATO Office of Resources (NOR) brings together, under the direction and leadership of the Director NOR, all international staff working on NATO military common-funded issues with the aim of reinforcing military common-funded resource management at the NATO HQ. The NOR provides integrated staff advice and support to the Resource Policy and Planning Board (RPPB), the Budget Committee (BC) and the Investment Committee (IC) as well as their Chairmen. The NOR provides staff advice to the divisions of the IS and IMS, and other bodies as required, on NATO military resource issues.
  • NATO Procurement Organisation (NPO)
    The NATO Procurement Organisation (NPO) A NATO Procurement Organisation (NPO) was established on 6 July 2012. This the first step in the creation of a framework for the execution of multinational armament procurement programmes within the Alliance. Until 2014, the NPO is in a design phase during which the structure and processes of the organisation will be developed in order to prepare for the effective execution of multinational procurement programmes. Main tasks and responsibilities During the design phase of the NPO, the aim is to establish a holding body in which multinational procurement programmes could be integrated. The Organisation will draw from the experience of current multinational procurement agencies such as the NATO Eurofighter and Tornado Management Agency (NETMA), NATO Helicopter Management Agency (NAHEMA), NATO Alliance Ground Surveillance Management Agency (NAGSMA), NATO Medium Extended Air Defense System Management Agency (NAMEADSMA), and NATO Airborne Early Warning Programme Management Agency (NAPMA) which will continue to exist until the Agency’s mission is fulfilled or participating nations decide to integrate into the new Organisation. A study assessing the possible merger of the NATO Support and Procurement Organisations, will also take place during the design phase. The Organisation’s structure The NPO is a subsidiary body of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation and was established by the North Atlantic Council. The Organisation’s operations are overseen by an Agency Supervisory Board, its sole governing body, which during the design phase will be the Conference of National Armaments Directors. The executive body will be activated when a procurement programme joins the NPO. Evolution Following the design phase the organisational set up will be reviewed either to keep a separate NATO Procurement Organisation or an integrated NATO Support and Procurement Organisation.
  • NATO Reform
    NATO reform At the Lisbon Summit, November 2010, NATO leaders endorsed a new Strategic Concept, which states that the Alliance will “engage in a process of continual reform, to streamline structures, improve working methods and maximise efficiency.” This process had already started in June 2010 with the internal organization of NATO Headquarters, i.e., the NATO Committee review. In parallel, NATO also engaged in the reform of its Command Structure – the NATO Command Structure Review - and that of its Agencies – the NATO Agencies Review. The Committee Review has been implemented and is currently being fine-tuned; the NATO Command Structure Review was launched at the Lisbon Summit and the approval of the model and geographical footprint was approved by defence ministers in June 2011. Its implementation will be conducted over a period of one year; the Agencies Review aims to enhance efficiency and effectiveness in the delivery of capabilities and services, to achieve greater synergy between similar functions and increase transparency and accountability. At the Lisbon Summit, Allies agreed to streamline the 14 NATO agencies into three major programmatic themes: procurement, support, and communications and information. Additionally, NATO’s International Staff is being reviewed as part of this broader package of reform being undertaken within the Organisation. Similarly to the other intiatives, it aims to streamline and adapt structures to today’s environment. A leaner, more affordable NATO 26 Jul. 2012 newYTPlayer('SNDsh0R3Xf4','89262',530,300); In this time of economic austerity the Alliance is becoming more affordable and more deployable by restructuring the NATO Command Structure. A leaner, more affordable NATO 26 Jul. 2012 In this time of economic austerity the Alliance is becoming more affordable and more deployable by restructuring the NATO Command Structure.
  • NATO Response Force
    NATO Response Force At the centre of NATO transformation The NATO Response Force (NRF) is a highly ready and technologically advanced multinational force made up of land, air, maritime and Special Operations Forces components that the Alliance can deploy quickly, wherever needed. The NRF will become more important post-2014, after the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) has completed its mission in Afghanistan. It will provide a vehicle to demonstrate operational readiness and act as a “testbed” for Alliance transformation. It can be used in the implementation of NATO’s Connected Forces Initiative (CFI) as a vehicle for greater cooperation in education and training, increased exercises and better use of technology. On 21 February 2013, NATO Defence Ministers agreed that the NRF will be at the core of the CFI in order to maintain NATO’s readiness and combat-effectiveness. As part of the initiative, the ministers agreed that the Alliance should hold a major live exercise in 2015 that will include the NATO Response Force, and draw up a comprehensive programme of training and exercises for the period 2015-2020. The NRF is comprised of three parts: a command and control element from the NATO Command Structure; the Immediate Response Force, a joint force of around 13,000 high-readiness troops provided by Allies; and a Response Forces Pool, which can supplement the Immediate Response Force when necessary. Purpose The NRF has the overarching purpose of being able to provide a rapid military response to an emerging crisis, whether for collective defence purposes or for other crisis-response operations. The NRF gives the Alliance the means to respond swiftly to various types of crises anywhere in the world. It is also a driving engine of NATO’s military transformation. A rotational force The NRF is based on a rotational system where Allied nations commit land, air, maritime or Special Operations Forces units to the Immediate Response Force. Rotations were initially for a six-month period, but since 2012, the rotation periods have been extended to 12 months. The flexibility offered by the Response Forces Pool, which permits NATO nations to make contributions on their own terms for durations of their choosing, is particularly relevant in this regard. The NRF is also open to partner countries, once approved by the North Atlantic Council. Participation in the Immediate Response Force is preceded by national preparation, followed by training with other participants in the multinational force. As units rotate through the NRF, the associated high standards, concepts and technologies are gradually spread throughout the Alliance, thereby fulfilling one of the key purposes of the NATO Response Force – the further transformation of Allied forces. Operational command of the NRF currently alternates among NATO’s Joint Force Commands in Brunssum, the Netherlands and Naples, Italy. A powerful package The Immediate Response Force has: a brigade-sized land component based on three Battle Groups and their supporting elements; a maritime component based on the Standing NATO Maritime Group (SNMG) and the Standing NATO Mine Countermeasures Group (SNMCMG); a combat air and air-support component; Special Operations Forces; and a chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) defence task force. Before use, the force will be tailored (adjusted in size and capability) to match the demands of any specific operation to which it is committed. Any mission, anywhere The NRF provides a visible assurance of NATO’s cohesion and commitment to deterrence and collective defence. Each rotation of the force has to prepare itself for a wide range of tasks. These include contributing to the preservation of territorial integrity, making a demonstration of force, peace-support operations, disaster relief, protecting critical infrastructure and security operations. Initial-entry operations are conducted jointly as part of a larger force to facilitate the arrival of follow-on forces. Elements of the NRF helped protect the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Greece, and were deployed to support the Afghan presidential elections in September of the same year. The NRF has also been used in disaster relief. In September and October 2005, aircraft from the NATO Response Force delivered relief supplies donated by NATO member and partner countries to the US to assist in dealing with the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. From October 2005 to February 2006, elements of the NATO Response Force were used in the disaster-relief effort in Pakistan, following the devastating 8 October earthquake. Aircraft from the NRF were used in an air bridge that delivered almost 3,500 tons of urgently needed supplies to Pakistan, while engineers and medical personnel from the NATO Response Force were deployed to the country to assist in the relief effort. Evolution The NATO Response Force initiative was announced at the Prague Summit in November 2002. In the words of General James Jones, the then NATO Supreme Allied Commander Europe, " … NATO will no longer have the large, massed units that were necessary for the Cold War, but will have agile and capable forces at Graduated Readiness levels that will better prepare the Alliance to meet any threat that it is likely to face in this 21st century ." The NRF concept was approved by Allied Ministers of Defence in June 2003 in Brussels. From concept to reality On 13 October 2004, at an informal meeting of NATO Defence Ministers in Poiana Brasov, Romania, the NATO Secretary General and Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR) formally announced that NRF had reached its initial operational capability and was ready to take on the full range of missions. The capabilities of the NRF were tested in a major live exercise, Steadfast Jaguar 06, in the Cape Verde Islands in June 2006. The challenging location was specifically designed to demonstrate and prove the viability of the NRF concept. At NATO's Riga Summit in November 2006, the NRF was declared to be fully ready to undertake operations. Since then, the way the NRF is generated and composed has been adjusted twice, in 2008 and 2010. This was to provide a more flexible approach to force generation, thereby facilitating force contributions which were being hampered by the enduring high operational tempo arising from Iraq, Afghanistan and other missions. To further support force generation, Allies have set themselves voluntary national targets for force contributions. Authority Any decision to use the NRF is a consensual political decision, taken on a case-by-case basis by all 28 Allies in the North Atlantic Council, NATO’s principal decision-making body.
  • NATO-Russia Council (NRC)
    NATO-Russia Council The NATO-Russia Council (NRC) was conceived as a mechanism for consultation, consensus-building, cooperation, joint decision and joint action. Within the NRC, the individual NATO member states and Russia have worked as equal partners on a wide spectrum of security issues of common interest. Following Russia’s illegal military intervention in Ukraine and its violation of Ukraine’s sovereignty and territorial integrity, in April 2014 the Alliance suspended all practical cooperation between NATO and Russia including in the NRC. However, the Alliance agreed to keep channels of communication open in the NRC and the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council at the Ambassadorial level and above, to allow the exchange of views, first and foremost on this crisis. The NRC was established at the NATO-Russia Summit in Rome on 28 May 2002 by the Declaration on “NATO-Russia Relations: a New Quality”. The Rome Declaration builds on the goals and principles of the 1997 NATO-Russia Founding Act on Mutual Relations, Cooperation and Security, which remains the formal basis for NATO-Russia relations. The NRC replaced the Permanent Joint Council (PJC), a forum for consultation and cooperation created by the 1997 NATO-Russia Founding Act. Under the NRC, Russia and NATO member states meet as equals “at 29” – instead of in the bilateral “NATO+1” format under the PJC. The purpose of the NRC has been to serve as the principal structure and venue for advancing the relationship between NATO and Russia. Operating on the basis of consensus, it has sought to promote continuous political dialogue on security issues with a view to the early identification of emerging problems, the determination of common approaches, the development of practical cooperation and the conduct of joint operations, as appropriate. Work under the NATO-Russia Council has focused on all areas of mutual interest identified in the Founding Act. New areas have been added to the NRC’s agenda by the mutual consent of its members.
  • NATO Science and Technology Organization (STO)
    The NATO Science and Technology Organization (STO) The NATO Science and Technology Organization (STO) acts as NATO’s principal organization for science and technology research. It is composed of a Science and Technology Board (STB), Scientific and Technical Committees and three Executive Bodies; the Office of the Chief Scientist (OCS), the Collaboration Support Office (CSO), and the Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation (CMRE). Main tasks and responsibilities The mission of the STO is to help position both national and NATO science and technology investments as a strategic enabler of the knowledge and technology advantage for the defence and security posture of NATO Allies and partners. The Organisation aims to leverage and augment the science and technology capabilities and programmes to contribute to NATO’s ability to influence security and defence related development. It also supports decisions made at both national and NATO level by providing advice to the North Atlantic Council and national leadership. The Organization’s structure The Chief Scientist is the chairman of the STB and the senior science advisor to the North Atlantic Council.  The Office of the Chief Scientist (OCS) is located in Brussels, Belgium at NATO HQ. The scientific and technical committees, composed of members from national and NATO bodies, will continue to direct and execute NATO’s collaborative science and technology activities. Executive and administrative support to NATO’s collaborative science and technology activities will be delivered by the Collaboration Support Office (CSO), formerly known as the Research and Technology Agency (RTA), located in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. The Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation (CMRE), formerly known as the NATO Undersea Research Centre (NURC), located in La Spezia, Italy, will organise and conduct scientific research and technology development, centred on the maritime domain, delivering innovative solutions to address the Alliance’s defence and security needs. CMRE conducts hands-on scientific and engineering research for the direct benefit of NATO and its’ customers. The Centre operates NATO’s two research vessels that enable science and technology solutions to be explored and developed at sea. This allows unique and specialized research to be conducted in core areas of interest for NATO. CMRE’s engineering capability enables rapid exploitation of concept prototypes for use in trials and military experiments. The Centre has also a scientific and engineering knowledge base which is published for use across NATO. Evolution The STO was created through the amalgamation of the Research and Technology Organization (RTO) and the NATO Undersea Research Centre (NURC).  These bodies were brought together following a decision at the Lisbon Summit to reform the NATO agency structure. The standing-up of the STO is part of a three phase implementation process of these reforms. The first phase is the consolidation phase and runs from 1 July 2012 to 1 January 2013.  It comprises the stand-up of the STO, the delivery of the NATO Science and Technology Strategy, the production of the CMRE Business Plan and the delivery of the study pertaining to the Operational Research and Analysis (ORA) function. The second phase is the rationalization phase.  This phase begins on 1 January 2013 and lasts until 1 July 2014.  The phase comprises transition of the CMRE to its new business model, the implementation of the NATO Science and Technology Strategy, the implementation of the decisions pertaining to the ORA function and a further consolidation study. The third and last phase is the optimization phase.  It is planned between 1 July 2014 and 1 July 2015.  It comprises the optimization of the measures of the rationalization phase and the implementation of the decisions pertaining to a further consolidation study.
  • NATO Secretary General
    The NATO Secretary General The Secretary General is the Alliance’s top international civil servant. This person is responsible for steering the process of consultation and decision-making in the Alliance and ensuring that decisions are implemented. The Secretary General is also NATO’s chief spokesperson and the head of the Organization’s International Staff. The post is currently held by Anders Fogh Rasmussen, former Prime Minister of Denmark, who took up his responsibilities on 1 August 2009. The function of Secretary General is filled by a senior statesman with high-level political experience in the government of one of the member countries. The person is nominated by member governments for an initial period of four years, which can be extended by mutual consent. Three principal responsibilities Chairman of the North Atlantic Council and other key bodies First and foremost, the Secretary General chairs the North Atlantic Council - the Alliance’s principal political decision-making body - as well as other senior decision-making committees. These include the Nuclear Planning Group, the NATO-Russia Council, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council and the Mediterranean Co-operation Group. Additionally, together with a Ukrainian representative, he is the chairman of the NATO-Ukraine Commission, as well as the chairman of the NATO-Georgia Commission. Above and beyond the role of chairman, the Secretary General has the authority to propose items for discussion and use his good offices in case of disputes between member states. He acts as a decision facilitator, leading and guiding the process of consensus-building and decision-making throughout the Alliance. He maintains direct contact with heads of state and government, foreign and defence ministers in NATO and partner countries, in order to facilitate this process. This entails regular visits to NATO and partner countries, as well as bilateral meetings with senior national officials when they visit NATO Headquarters. Effectively, his role allows him to exert some influence on the decision-making process while respecting the fundamental principle that the authority for taking decisions is invested only in the member governments themselves. Principal spokesperson The Secretary General is also the principal spokesman of the Alliance and represents the Alliance in public on behalf of the member countries, reflecting their common positions on political issues. He also represents NATO vis-à-vis other international organizations as well as to the media and the public at large. To this end the Secretary General regularly holds press briefings and conferences as well as public lectures and speeches. Head of the International Staff Third and lastly, the Secretary General is the senior executive officer of the NATO International Staff, responsible for making staff appointments and overseeing its work. Support to the Secretary General In his day-to-day work, the Secretary General is directly supported by a Private Office and a Deputy Secretary General, who assists the Secretary General and replaces him in his absence. The Deputy Secretary General is also the chairman of a number of senior committees, ad hoc groups and working groups. More generally speaking, the entire International Staff at NATO Headquarters supports the Secretary General, either directly or indirectly. The selection process The Secretary General is a senior statesman from a NATO member country, appointed by member states for a four-year term. The selection is carried through informal diplomatic consultations among member countries, which put forward candidates for the post. No decision is confirmed until consensus is reached on one candidate. At the end of his term, the incumbent might be offered to stay on for a fifth year. The position has traditionally been held by a European statesman.
  • NATO Support Agency (NSPA), The -
    The NATO Support Agency (NSPA) The NATO Support Agency (NSPA) is NATO’s integrated logistics and services provider Agency. The NSPA is a fully customer-funded agency, operating on a “no profit - no loss” basis. It brings together NATO’s logistics and procurement support activities in a single organisation, providing integrated multinational support solutions for its stakeholders. Main tasks and responsibilities NSPA’s mission is to provide responsive, effective and cost-efficient logistics support services for systems and operations. This support is provided – in times of peace, crisis and war, wherever required – to the NATO member nations, the NATO Military Authorities and partner nations, both individually and collectively. In line with guidance provided by the North Atlantic Council, it aims to maximise the ability and flexibility of armed forces, contingents, and other relevant organisations to execute their core mission. NSPA is organised into three business segments: the NATO Airlift Management Programme (NAM), the Central Europe Pipeline System Programme (CEPS) and Logistics Operations. The NATO Airlift Management Programme acquires, manages and supports the airlift assets that nations can call upon to fulfil their national, NATO, European Union and United Nations commitments. It provides financial, logistics, and administrative services in support of the Heavy Airlift Wing (HAW), a multinational military unit located in Hungary and responsible for operating the Airlift Management Programme-owned aircraft used to meet the requirements of the participating nations in accordance with a pre-agreed allocation of flying hours. Members of the NAM Programme include Bulgaria, Estonia, Finland, Hungary, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, Sweden and the United States. The NAM Programme Board, acting in the collective interests of all NAM member nations, is the governing body for Programme execution. The Central Europe Pipeline System Programme manages the operation, financing and maintenance of an integrated, cross-border fuel pipeline and storage system in support of NATO’s operational military requirements, including expeditionary operations. The CEPS Programme Office, located in France, coordinates and designs the planning of cross-border traffic and manages product quality control. It is responsible for operational, technical and financial control, as well as the coordination of business development. Operations run on a 24/7 basis, with the CEPS Programme Office serving as the intermediary between suppliers and national organisations, NATO authorities, and non-military clients. Members of the CEPS Programme include Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and the United States. The CEPS Programme Board, acting in the collective interests of all CEPS Programme member nations, is the governing body for Programme execution.  The Logistics Operations segment is a grouping of multiple weapon and equipment systems support capabilities, some highly specialised. These are provided using multinational legal frameworks, as well as bilateral and multinational agreements, that enable the consolidation and centralisation of logistics management functions across NATO. All of these capabilities can be used to support NATO and member nations during exercises and during deployments under North Atlantic Council-approved operations. The majority of the logistics support provided is outsourced to industry through international competitive bidding. The segment also has an in-house engineering and technical support capability covering a number of specific technologies, such as optoelectronics and calibration. Logistics Operations maintains a Southern Operational Centre (SOC) in Italy. A number of its staff are deployed to operations and NATO commands to provide front line support. The Agency’s structure Headquartered in Capellen, Luxembourg, the NSPA employs some 1,200 staff in operational centres in Luxembourg, France, Hungary and Italy. Headed by a General Manager, the NSPA is the executive body of the NATO Support Organisation (NSPO). All 28 NATO nations are members of the NSPO, with each nation represented on the NSPO Agency Supervisory Board (ASB). The ASB directs and controls the activities of the NSPA, issues directives and makes general policy decisions to enable NSPO to carry out its work. It reports to the North Atlantic Council (NAC). Evolution At the Lisbon Summit in November 2010, NATO Heads of State and Government agreed to reform the 14 existing NATO Agencies, located in seven member states. In particular, Allies agreed to streamline the agencies into three major programmatic themes: procurement, support, and communications and information. The reform aims to enhance efficiency and effectiveness in the delivery of capabilities and services, to achieve greater synergy between similar functions and to increase transparency and accountability. As part of the reform process, the NSPA Agency was established on 1 July 2012 as a result of the merger of the former in-service support agencies: the NATO Maintenance Supply Agency (NAMSA), the NATO Airlift Management Agency (NAMA) and the Central Europe Pipeline Management Agency (CEPMA).
  • NATO-Ukraine Commission (NUC)
    NATO-Ukraine Commission The NATO-Ukraine Commission (NUC) is the decision-making body responsible for developing the NATO-Ukraine relationship and for directing cooperative activities. It also provides a forum for consultation between the Allies and Ukraine on security issues of common concern. The NATO-Ukraine Commission (NUC) is the decision-making body responsible for developing the NATO-Ukraine relationship and for directing cooperative activities. It also provides a forum for consultation between the Allies and Ukraine on security issues of common concern. The NUC was established by the NATO-Ukraine Charter on a Distinctive Partnership signed by Ukrainian and Allied Heads of State and Government in Madrid on 9 July 1997. Its task is to ensure proper implementation of the Charter’s provisions, broadly assess the development of the NATO-Ukraine relationship, survey planning for future activities, and suggest ways to improve or further develop cooperation. The work of the NUC The NUC provides a forum for consultation between the Allies and Ukraine on security issues of common concern. . The current crisis in Ukraine has been discussed in the NUC forum. On 2 March 2014, Allies and Ukraine convened an extraordinary meeting of the NUC At their meeting in April 2014, Foreign Ministers of the NATO-Ukraine Commission condemned Russia’s illegal and illegitimate “annexation” of Crimea andstated that NATO and Ukraine would intensify cooperation and promote defence reforms through capacity building and capability development programmes. Other subjects are also discussed within the framework of the NUC such as the situation in Afghanistan and the Balkans; the fight against terrorism; frozen conflicts and other regional security issues. In December 2008, NATO foreign ministers decided to further enhance work under the NUC through the development of an Annual National Programme (ANP). The NUC also keeps under review Ukraine’s activities in the Partnership for Peace programme, in the military sphere under the Military Committee and the Ukraine Annual Work Plan. Joint working groups have been set up under the auspices of the NUC to take work forward in specific areas, namely defence and security sector reform, armaments, economic security, scientific and environmental cooperation. Participants All NATO member states and Ukraine are represented in the NUC, which meets regularly at the level of ambassadors and military representatives, as well as periodically at the level of foreign and defence ministers and chiefs of staff, and occasionally at summit level, involving Heads of State and Government. Senior level meeting of the NUC are prepared by the Political Committee in NUC format (or NUC PPC), which also serves as the site for ongoing exchanges on political and security issues of common interest, and the preparation and assessment of Ukraine’s programmes of cooperation with NATO.
  • NATO-Ukraine Joint Working Group on Defence Reform
    NATO-Ukraine Joint Working Group on Defence Reform NATO and Ukraine cooperation in the area of defence and security sector reform is more extensive than with any other Partner country. The NATO-Ukraine Joint Working Group on Defence Reform (JWGDR) is the primary focus for NATO-Ukraine cooperation in defence and security sector reform. What are its tasks and responsibilities? It was established in 1998, under the auspices of the NATO-Ukraine Commission, to pursue initiatives in the area of civil-military relations, democratic oversight and civilian management of the armed forces and other security sector agencies, defence planning, policy, strategy and national security concepts. The JWGDR allows Ukraine to draw on Allied countries' considerable experience and expertise, and serves as a tool through which the Allies can channel assistance. It also provides the institutional basis for cooperation with ministries and agencies engaged in supporting defence and security sector reform in Ukraine . These include the National Security and Defence Council, Ministries of Foreign Affairs and Defence, Border Guards, Verkhovna Rada (Ukrainian Parliament) and others. Who participates? All NATO member states and Ukraine are represented in meetings of the JWGDR, which are chaired by NATO’s Assistant Secretary General for Defence Policy and Planning. How does it work in practice? The core group of the JWGDR meets quarterly at the expert level. The JWGDR also meets annually at Senior Level, involving high-ranking officials form Allied capitals and Kyiv. Once a year, the JWGDR organises informal consultations on defence and security reform involving Ukrainian and Allied Defence Ministers, as well as key defence and security experts.
  • NATO’s assistance to Iraq
    NATO’s assistance to Iraq The Alliance demonstrated its commitment to helping Iraq create effective armed forces and, ultimately, provide for its own security by establishing the NATO Training Mission-Iraq (NTM-I) in 2004. It was withdrawn from Iraq on 31 December 2011 when the mandate of the mission expired and agreement could not be reached on the legal status of NATO troops operating in the country. The NTM-I was set up in accordance with the UN Security Council Resolution 1546 and at the request of the Iraqi Interim Government. It was not a combat mission. Its operational emphasis was on training and mentoring, and on equipment donation and coordination through the NATO Training and Equipment Co-ordination Group. From 2004 to 2011, it trained over 5,000 military personnel and over 10,000 police personnel in Iraq. Nearly 2,000 courses were provided in Allied countries and over 115 million euro’s worth of military equipment and a total of over 17.5 million euros in trust fund donations from 26 Allies for training and education at NATO facilities. The aim of NTM-I was to help Iraq develop a democratically-led and enduring security sector. In parallel and reinforcing the NTM-I initiative, NATO and the Iraqi government established a structured cooperation framework to develop the Alliance’s long-term partnership with Iraq. The aim and contours of the mission NATO helped the Iraqi government build the capability to ensure, by its own means, the security needs of the Iraqi people. It did not have a direct role in the international stabilisation force that was in Iraq from May 2003 until 31 December 2011 (the US-led combat mission “Operation Iraqi Freedom” was succeeded by “Operation New Dawn” in September 2010). Operationally, NTM-I specialised at the strategic level with the training of mid- to senior-level officers. By providing mentoring, advice and instruction support through in- and out-of-country training and the coordination of deliveries of donated military equipment, NTM-I made a tangible contribution to the rebuilding of military leadership in Iraq and the development of the Iraqi Ministry of Defence and the Iraqi Security Forces (ISF). In 2007, Allies decided to extend their training assistance to Iraq by including gendarmerie-type training of the federal police in order to bridge the gap between routine police work and military operations. In December 2008, on the request of Prime Minister Al-Maliki, NATO expanded the Mission to other areas including navy and air force leadership training, defence reform, defence institution building, and small arms and light weapons accountability. NTM-I delivered its training, advice and mentoring support in a number of different settings. Over time, over a dozen member countries and one partner country contributed to the training effort either in or outside Iraq, through financial contributions or donations of equipment. In-country training and coordinating The Strategic Security Advisor and Mentoring Division The Strategic Security Advisor and Mentoring Division within NTM-I consisted of three mobile teams of advisors who worked in close cooperation with the Iraqi leadership in the Prime Minister’s National Operation Centre, the Minister of Defence’s Joint Operations Centre, and the Minister of Interior’s National Command Centre. Through intensive training programmes and daily mentoring support NATO helped the Iraqis to achieve Full Operational Capability in the three operations centres. The NATO Training, Education and Doctrine Advisory Division The National Defence University is the overarching institution under which Iraqi Officer Education and Training (OET) is managed. A NATO advisory mentoring team, within the NATO Training, Education and Doctrine Advisory Division, assisted the Iraqi Ministry of Defence with the development of a three-year degree course at the military academy at Ar Rustamiyah and a War College to compliment the Joint Staff College for senior security officials. It focused on the training of middle and senior-level personnel so as to help develop an officer corps trained in modern military leadership skills. It also aimed to introduce values that are in keeping with democratically-controlled armed forces. The National Defence College The North Atlantic Council agreed to support the establishment of the Iraqi National Defence College on 22 September 2004 and it was officially opened on 27 September 2005. In 2010, NTM-I personnel advised and assisted the Iraqi Ministry of Defence with the development of syllabi and lectures. The Defence Language Institute (DLI) and Defence and Strategic Studies Institute (DSSI) Located in Baghdad, DLI teaches civilian and military officials English. It is attached to the National Defence College. NATO played a key role in its establishment by advising on the course curriculum and assisting in the acquisition of its facilities, computers and furniture. NTM-I advisors also assisted Iraqis in the DSSI with the establishment of a digital military library capability. The Armed Forces Training and Education Branch The Armed Forces Training and Education Branch is part of the on-going standardisation of educational facilities at Ar Rustamiyah. Through this branch, NATO personnel developed and assisted the Non-commissioned Officer and Battle Staff Training courses. Out-of-country training NATO training schools NTM-I also facilitated training outside Iraq at NATO education and training facilities and national Centres of Excellence throughout NATO member countries. In order to allow an increasing number of Iraqi personnel to take part in specialised training outside of Iraq, NATO supported the establishment of the Defence Language Institute mentioned above. The NATO Training and Equipment Coordination Group This group, under the control of Allied Command Transformation, was established at NATO HQ on 8 October 2004. Based in Brussels, it worked with the Training and Education Synchronization Cell in Baghdad to coordinate the requirements of the Iraqi government for out-of-country training and equipment that was offered by NATO as a whole or by individual NATO member countries. Coordinating bilateral assistance Additionally, NATO helped to coordinate bilateral assistance provided by individual NATO member countries in the form of additional training, equipment donations and technical assistance both in and outside Iraq. Command of the mission The NATO mission was a distinct mission, under the political control of NATO’s North Atlantic Council. Nonetheless, NATO’s training missions were coordinated with Iraqi authorities and the US Forces - Iraq (USF-I). The NTM-I commander, who commanded the NATO effort in the country, was dual-hatted: he was also United States Forces Iraq (USF-I) Deputy Commanding General for Advising and Training (A&T). He reported to the Supreme Allied Commander Operations at SHAPE, Belgium for all matters related to NATO efforts in the country. The latter then reported, via the Chairman of the Military Committee, to the North Atlantic Council. US Forces - Iraq provided a secure environment for the protection of NATO forces in Iraq. The NATO chain of command had responsibility for close area force protection for all NATO personnel deployed to Iraq or the region. The evolution of NATO’s training effort in Iraq In a letter sent to the NATO Secretary General on 22 June 2004, the interim Iraqi Prime Minister Ilyad Allawi requested NATO support to his government through training and other forms of technical assistance. At their Summit meeting in Istanbul on 28 June 2004 - the day that sovereignty was formally transferred to an Interim Iraqi Government - NATO leaders agreed to assist Iraq with the training of its security forces and encouraged member countries to contribute. The NATO Training Implementation Mission A Training Implementation Mission was established on 30 July 2004. Its goal was to identify the best methods for conducting training both inside and outside the country. In addition, the mission immediately began training selected Iraqi headquarters personnel in Iraq. The first elements of the mission deployed on 7 August, followed by a team of about 50 officers led by Major General Carel Hilderink of the Netherlands. Expanding NATO's assistance On 22 September 2004, based on the mission's recommendations, the North Atlantic Council agreed to expand NATO's assistance, including establishing a NATO-supported Iraqi Training, Education and Doctrine Centre in Iraq. In November 2004, NATO's military authorities prepared a detailed concept of operations for the expanded assistance, including the rules of engagement for force protection. On 9 December 2004, NATO Foreign Ministers authorised the Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR) to start the next stage of the mission. The activation order for this next stage was given by SACEUR on 16 December 2004. It paved the way for the deployment of 300 additional staff, including trainers and support staff, and a significant increase in the existing training and mentoring given to mid- and senior-level personnel from the Iraqi Security Forces. It also changed the mission’s name from NATO Training Implementation Mission to NATO Training Mission-Iraq. By February 2005, the new mission was fully staffed and funded. Niche training options At the summit meeting in Riga, November 2006, heads of state and government agreed to develop niche training options within the mandate of the NTM-I on the request of the Iraqi Prime Minister. A few months later, training was extended to include gendarmerie-type training of the national police. In December 2008, the mission was expanded to other areas. These areas included navy and air force leadership training, police training, defence reform, defence institution-building and standardised officer education and training. In 2010, NTM-I expanded once again, with developments within the Training, Education Doctrine Advisory Division and, more specifically, the Officer Education and Training Directorate, where greater interaction and support were developed between trainers and Iraqi participants. In addition, in response to Minister of Interior Bolani’s request to the Alliance of 8 September 2010, Italy announced its intention on 5 October 2010 to provide specialized training in the area of oil policing to the Government of Iraq. The training constituted an important contribution to the NATO Training Mission Iraq and the Alliance training support activities with the Government of Iraq.  Legal status of NTM-I personnel in Iraq On 26 July 2009, NATO and the Government of the Republic of Iraq signed an agreement regarding the training of Iraqi Security Forces (LTA). This agreement provided legal protection for NATO to continue with its training mission until the end of 2011. Extension of this mandate did not prove possible so the NTM-I was permanently withdrawn from Iraq on 31 December 2011. However, NATO remains committed to developing a long-term relationship with Iraq through its structured cooperation framework. Following the closure of NTM-I, a NATO Transition Cell was set up in order to bridge from an operational training mission to a sustained partnership. This Transition Cell operated for one year, from June 2012 until end May 2013. Transition from NTM-I to an enduring partnership NATO’s commitment to developing a long-term relationship with Iraq materialised in the decision to grant the country partner status in April 2011. Following the closure of NTM-I, a NATO Transition Cell was set up in order to bridge from an operational training mission to a sustained partnership. And a first step was taken in May 2012, when Iraq officially submitted a draft Individual Partnership and Cooperation Programme. This programme aims to provide a framework for regular dialogue and training cooperation in areas such as the fight against terrorism, cross-border organised crime and critical energy infrastructure protection.
  • NATO’s fundamental security tasks
    NATO’s fundamental security tasks NATO’s essential and enduring purpose is to safeguard the freedom and security of all its members by political and military means. Collective defence is at the heart of the Alliance and creates a spirit of solidarity and cohesion among its members. NATO strives to secure a lasting peace in Europe, based on common values of individual liberty, democracy, human rights and the rule of law. Since the outbreak of crises and conflicts beyond the borders of NATO member countries can jeopardize this objective, the Alliance also contributes to peace and stability through crisis management operations and partnerships. Essentially, NATO not only helps to defend the territory of its members, but engages where possible and when necessary to project its values further afield, prevent crises, manage crises, stabilize post-conflict situations and support reconstruction.  NATO also embodies the transatlantic link by which the security of North America is tied to the security of Europe. It is an intergovernmental organization which provides a forum where members can consult together on any issues they may choose to raise and take decisions on political and military matters affecting their security. No single member country is forced to rely soley on its national capabilities to meet its essential national security objectives. The resulting sense of shared security among members contributes to stability in the Euro-Atlantic area. NATO’s fundamental security tasks are laid down in the Washington Treaty. They are sufficiently general to withstand the test of time and are translated into more detail in strategic concepts. Strategic concepts are the authoritative statement of the Alliance’s objectives and provide the highest level of guidance on the political and military means to be used in achieving these goals; they remain the basis for the implementation of Alliance policy as a whole. During the Cold War, NATO focused on collective defence and the protection of its members from potential threats emanating from the Soviet Union. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, along with the rise of non-state actors affecting international security, many new security threats emerged. NATO now focuses on countering these threats by utilizing collective defence, managing crisis situations and encouraging cooperative security, as outlined in the 2010 Strategic Concept.
  • NATO’s relations with Ireland
    NATO’s relations with Ireland NATO’s relations with Ireland are conducted through the Partnership for Peace framework, which Ireland joined in 1999. NATO and Ireland actively cooperate on humanitarian, rescue, peacekeeping and crisis management and have developed practical cooperation in a range of other areas, as provided for in Ireland’s Individual Partnership Programme (IPP). NATO highly values its relations with Ireland. The Allies view Ireland as an effective and pro-active partner and contributor to international security, which shares key values such as the promotion of international security, democracy and human rights. Irish cooperation with NATO is based on a longstanding policy of military neutrality, which allows for its armed forces to be used for peacekeeping and crisis management where there is a UN mandate, a government decision and parliamentary approval. From this basis Ireland selects areas of cooperation with NATO that match joint objectives. Ireland’s participation in the Partnership for Peace (PfP) has focused on enhancing the interoperability of its armed forces and its capacity to participate in multinational crisis-response operations. Ireland is currently contributing to the NATO-led peacekeeping operations in Kosovo and Afghanistan. In the past, it supported the NATO-led operation in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Framework for cooperation NATO and Ireland decide upon areas of cooperation in Ireland’s Individual Partnership and Cooperation Programme (IPCP), which is jointly agreed for a two-year period. The current IPCP focuses on the enhancement of skills and expertise in areas such areas as operational and generic planning for peacekeeping and peace support, communications (including cyber defence), command and control, operational procedures and logistics. Activities include training courses, seminars, workshops, conferences, exercises and certification and standardisation procedures. Participation in the PfP Planning and Review Process (PARP) is aimed at enhancing Ireland’s ability to take part in multinational peace-support operations, improving capabilities and developing interoperability with Allies and other partners. Key areas of cooperation Security cooperation In 1997, Ireland deployed personnel in support of the NATO-led peacekeeping operation in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Many of its forces formed part of an international military police company, primarily operating in Sarajevo. Ireland began contributing to the NATO-led Kosovo peacekeeping force (KFOR) in 1999 and has provided a truck cargo support company, an infantry company and staff officers. Additionally, Ireland was in command of Multinational Task Force Centre (MNTF-C) from 2007 to 2008. Currently, 12 personnel are deployed as part of KFOR. Since 2002 Ireland has also been providing staff officers and non-commissioned officers for the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan. Currently, 7 personnel are deployed as part of ISAF. Based on the considerable peacekeeping experience of the Irish Defence Forces, Ireland contributes actively to a variety of PfP activities in areas such as generic planning for peacekeeping and peace support, communications, command and control, operational procedures, logistics and training. The Irish Defence Forces also operate a UN peacekeeping school, which offers courses that are open to all Allies and Partners. Since 2010, the Irish Defence Ordnance School also offers training courses on improvised explosive device disposal. Defence and security sector reform Participating in peacekeeping operations and engaging in PfP activities has complemented Ireland’s own process of military transformation. Participation in the PfP Planning and Review Process (PARP) assists Ireland in developing the capabilities and interoperability of the forces it declares available for PfP activities, including NATO-led operations, while also supporting Irelands’s efforts to meet capability goals in the EU framework. Ultimately, the Irish Defence Forces are improving their expeditionary peace-support-operation capabilities through PARP. Over the years, along with individual Allies and partners, Ireland has contributed to ten Partnership Trust Fund projects. The include projects partner countries. for the destruction of mines in Montenegro and Serbia, the destruction of ammunition for small arms and light weapons in Albania, Montenegro, Serbia and Ukraine, and the removal of dangerous chemicals in Moldova, as well as projects aimed at building integrity and transparency in defence and security institutions. Science and environment Under the Science for Peace and Security (SPS) Programme, scientists from Ireland have participated in numerous advanced research workshops and seminars on a range of topics, including science in the policy-making process, suicide bombing, and security and culture. Public information In every partner country an embassy of one of the NATO member states serves as a contact point and operates as a channel for disseminating information about the role and policies of the Alliance. The current NATO Contact Point Embassy in Ireland is the embassy of Hungary. Milestones in relations 1997 Ireland sends its first contingent of troops to support the NATO-led peacekeeping force in Bosnia and Herzegovina. 1999 Ireland joins the Partnership for Peace. Irish forces participate in the NATO-led peacekeeping force in Kosovo. 2000 Ireland submits its first Individual Partnership Programme. 2001 Ireland joins the PfP Planning and Review Process (PARP). 2002 Irish staff personnel are assigned to the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan. Ireland participates in Cooperative Safeguard 2002, a humanitarian exercise, in Iceland. 2005 Ireland, along with several other Allies and partners, responds to the request from the United States for assistance to deal with the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. 2007-2008 Ireland commands MNTF-C in Kosovo. 2008 Ireland participates in Crisis Management Exercise (CMX 2008). 2010 Ireland starts offering courses to international personnel in improvised explosive device disposal. 2011 Ireland participates as observer in Cyber Coalition 2011. 2012 Ireland participates as observer in Cyber Coalition 2012. 2013 In February, Anders Fogh Rasmussen becomes the first NATO Secretary General to visit Ireland. He discusses current cooperation and the potential for strengthening ties between NATO and Ireland with Taoiseach Enda Kenny and Defence Minister Alan Shatter. He also attends an informal meeting of European Union defence ministers in Dublin.
  • NATO’s relations with partners across the globe
    NATO’s relations with partners across the globe NATO cooperates on an individual basis with a number of countries which are not actually part of its formal partnership frameworks¹. Referred to as “partners across the globe” or simply “global partners”, they include Afghanistan, Australia, Iraq, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Mongolia, New Zealand and Pakistan. These countries develop cooperation with NATO in areas of mutual interest and actively contribute to NATO operations. Individual global partners choose the areas where they wish to engage in and cooperate with NATO in a spirit of mutual benefit and reciprocity. Over recent years, NATO has developed bilateral relations with each of these countries. Global partners now have the same access to partnership activities as those in formal partnership frameworks. Activities range from joint exercises and operations, to strategic-level training on issues of intelligence, information and technology. The importance of reaching out to countries and organisations across the globe was underlined in the Strategic Concept adopted at the November 2010 Lisbon Summit. At Lisbon, Allied leaders declared their intention, as part of a focused effort to reform NATO’s partnerships policy, to better engage with global partners, contributing significantly to international security. Following up on the Lisbon decisions, Allied foreign ministers approved a new partnerships policy at their meeting in Berlin in April 2011. In line with the new policy, all partners will be treated in the same way, offering them the same basis of cooperation and dialogue. Moreover, there are now more opportunities for meetings in flexible formats, bringing together NATO members and partners with other countries, which NATO may have no bilateral programme of cooperation. These include China, India, Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia and Colombia. Such meetings have taken place to consult partners on different issues, such as counter piracy and countering narcotics in Afghanistan. 1. The Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, Partnership for Peace, the Mediterranean Dialogue and the Istanbul Cooperation Initiative. Highlights Partners across the globe, or global partners, work with NATO on an individual basis, outside of the Alliance’s traditional partnership frameworks. Global partners have the same access to all of NATO’s partnership activities. Currently, NATO’s global partners include Afghanistan, Australia, Iraq, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Mongolia, New Zealand and Pakistan. Support for NATO-led operations The contributions from global partners and other countries to NATO-led operations have a direct, advantageous impact for international peace and security. In the Balkans, Argentinean and Chilean forces have worked alongside NATO Allies to ensure security in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In Kosovo, Argentina has helped NATO personnel provide medical and social assistance to the local population and cooperated on peace agreement implementation since 1999. In Afghanistan, a number of global partners such as Australia, the Republic of Korea and New Zealand, work alongside the Allies as part of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF). Other countries, such as Japan, support ISAF efforts of stabilisation in Afghanistan without being involved in combat, by funding a large number of development projects and dispatching liaison officers. Pakistan’s support for the efforts of NATO and the international community in Afghanistan remains crucial to the success of the Alliance’s mission, despite past differences. NATO remains committed to engaging with Pakistan in an effort to enlist support to stabilise Afghanistan. The participation of partners in NATO-led peace-support operations is guided by the Political-Military Framework (PMF), which was developed for NATO-led operations. This framework provides for the involvement of contributing states in the planning and force generation processes through the International Coordination Centre at SHAPE. Building on lessons learned and reinforcing the habit of cooperation established through KFOR and ISAF, NATO Allies decided at the 2010 Lisbon Summit to review the PMF in order to update how NATO shapes decisions and works with partner countries on the operations and missions to which they contribute. Typically, partner military forces are incorporated into operations on the same basis as are forces from NATO member countries. This implies that they are involved in the decision-making process through their association to the work of NATO committees, and through the posting of liaison officers in the operational headquarters or to SHAPE. They operate under the direct command of the Operational Commander through multinational divisional headquarters. Regular meetings of the North Atlantic Council, the Alliance’s principal political decision-making body, with ambassadors, ministers and heads of state and government are held to discuss and review the operations. Evolution of relations NATO has maintained a dialogue with countries that are not part of its partnership frameworks, on an ad-hoc basis, since the 1990s. However, NATO’s involvement in areas outside of its immediate region – including Afghanistan and Libya – has increased the need and opportunities for enhanced global interaction. Clearly, the emergence of global threats requires the cooperation of a wider range of countries to successfully tackle challenges such as terrorism, proliferation, piracy or cyber attacks. Dialogue with these countries can also help NATO avert crises and, when needed, manage an operation throughout all phases. Since 1998, NATO has invited countries across the globe to participate in its activities, workshops, exercises, and conferences. This decision marked a policy shift for the Alliance, allowing these countries to have access, through the case-by-case approval of the North Atlantic Council, to activities offered under NATO’s structured partnerships. These countries were known as “Contact Countries”. Significant steps were taken at the 2006 Riga Summit to increase the operational relevance of NATO’s cooperation with countries that are part of its structured partnership frameworks as well as other countries around the world. These steps, reinforced by decisions at the 2008 Bucharest Summit, defined a set of objectives for these relationships and created avenues for enhanced political dialogue, including meetings of the North Atlantic Council with ministers of the countries concerned, high-level talks, and meetings with ambassadors. In addition, annual work programmes (then referred to as Individual Tailored Cooperation Packages of Activities) were further developed. At the 2010 Lisbon Summit, Allies agreed to develop a more efficient and flexible partnership policy, in time for the meeting of Allied foreign ministers in Berlin in April 2011. To this end, they decided to: streamline NATO’s partnership tools in order to open all cooperative activities and exercises to partners and to harmonise partnership programmes; better engage with partners across the globe who contribute significantly to security and reach out to relevant partners to build trust, increase transparency and develop practical cooperation; develop flexible formats to discuss security challenges with partners and enhance existing fora for political dialogue; and build on improvements in NATO’s training mechanisms and consider methods to enhance individual partners’ ability to build capacity.
  • Naval operations, NATO -
    NATO naval operations The world population is reliant on the seas and oceans for international commerce, as a source of food and for vital supplies of oil and natural gas. It is NATO’s responsibility to help protect international commerce from potential threats, as well as its member countries’ maritime resources and territory from possible attacks that may come from the sea. Since the launch of NATO’s first Article 5 operation - Operation Active Endeavour – in October 2001 and its counter-piracy operations in the Gulf of Aden and off the Horn of Africa (October 2008), it has drafted a new Alliance Maritime Strategy to further institutionalise operational flexibility and strengthen the ties between NATO countries and its partners. This strategy was adopted in January 2011, in full consistency with the 2010 Strategic Concept. The strategy stipulates that NATO maritime forces will enhance the Alliance’s security by contributing to deterrence and collective defence, crisis management, cooperative security and maritime security. Deterrence and collective defence NATO has significant maritime capabilities and inherently flexible maritime forces, which are key to deterring aggression. As such, maritime activities contribute to nuclear deterrence as well as to deterrence from conventional attacks. NATO will ensure it has the capabilities to deploy its maritime forces rapidly, to control sea lines of communication, to preserve the freedom of navigation and to conduct effective mine counter-measure activities. Crisis management NATO maritime forces can also play an important role in crisis management. These responsibilities can range from enforcing an arms embargo, to conducting maritime interdiction operations, to contributing to the Alliance’s counter-terrorism efforts, and to providing immediate humanitarian assistance in the aftermath of a natural disaster. Cooperative security The activities of NATO’s maritime forces not only contribute to ensuring Alliance security. The engagement with partners helps to build regional security and stability, contributes to conflict prevention and facilitates dialogue. These efforts also invite contact, positive interaction and cooperation with other relevant actors in international maritime activities, such as the United Nations and the European Union. Maritime security The strategy reiterates NATO’s commitment to pursue its maritime security activities, which help to protect vital sea lines of communication and maintain the freedom of navigation. Surveillance, patrolling and the sharing of information, for instance, all contribute to supporting law enforcement, preventing proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and countering potential terrorist or illegal activities. This approach involves working with other international partners and ensuring an ongoing modernisation of NATO’s maritime capabilities. More importantly, it will ensure that the Alliance is prepared to confront all possible, including asymmetrical, threats, and answer the security challenges of the 21st century.
  • New Zealand, NATO cooperation with -
    NATO cooperation with New Zealand In addition to its partnership frameworks¹, NATO cooperates with a range of countries on a bilateral basis. Referred to as “partners across the globe,” they share similar strategic concerns and key Alliance values. Australia, Japan, the Republic of Korea and New Zealand are all examples of global partners. The Strategic Concept adopted at the 2010 Lisbon Summit paved the way for a more flexible partnership policy offering all partners the same basis of cooperation and dialogue. NATO and New Zealand have had regular contact since 2001. During her term in office, former Prime Minister Helen Clark came regularly to NATO Headquarters. Former New Zealand Foreign Minister Phil Goff met the then Secretary General Lord Robertson twice, and regular exchanges have continued since then. In February 2011, NATO’s Deputy Secretary General travelled to New Zealand, where he held discussions with Minister of Foreign Affairs Murray McCully, Minister of Defence Wayne Mapp, Chief of Defence Force R. R. Jones, and other officials. The Prime Minister is expected to come to NATO Headquarters in early June 2012. Practical cooperation New Zealand contributes to the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan, where the country leads a Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) in Bamyan. In July 2011, Bamyan became the first of seven areas to transition to Afghan leadership under a plan announced by President Karzai in March 2011. New Zealand continues to contribute to ISAF including with the New Zealand National Support Element (NSE) based at Bagram Air Force Base (BAF). This is not the country’s first troop contribution, as several New Zealand officers served in the NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR) in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In fact, New Zealand continues to support the EU-led force that took over from NATO. New Zealand is involved in meetings and discussions related to ISAF operations, at ministerial, heads of state and government and working level. On that basis, the then Prime Minister Helen Clark attended the meeting of ISAF troop-contributing nations that took place at the Bucharest Summit in April 2008. Foreign Minister Murray McCully participated in such discussions at the Lisbon Summit in November 2010. The Allies and New Zealand have also moved forward on other areas such as arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation, disaster relief and crisis management, and education and training. New Zealand also participates in a number of technical activities, primarily focused on areas related to peace support operations. 1. The Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, the Partnership for Peace, the Mediterranean Dialogue and the Istanbul Cooperation Initiative..
  • Non-proliferation, arms control and disarmament in NATO
    Arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation in NATO NATO has a long-standing commitment to an active policy in arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation. The Alliance continues to pursue its security objectives through these policies, while at the same time ensuring that its collective defence obligations are met and the full range of its missions fulfilled. Allies participate actively in international arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation treaties and agreements. NATO itself does not belong to any treaty as an entity but it continues to encourage its members, partners and other countries to implement their international obligations fully. NATO’s policies in these fields cover consultation and practical cooperation in a wide range of areas. These include conventional arms control; nuclear policy issues; promoting mine action and combating the spread of small arms and light weapons (SALW), munitions and man-portable air defence systems (MANPADS); preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and developing and harmonizing capabilities to defend against chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) threats. Arms control and disarmament are key elements of the Euro-Atlantic security architecture. Over the past two decades, Allies have significantly contributed to more stable international relations at lower levels of military forces and armaments, through effective and verifiable arms control agreements. At the Bucharest Summit in 2008, Allied leaders took note of a report on raising NATO’s profile in the fields of arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation. As part of a broader response to security issues, they agreed that NATO should continue to contribute to international efforts in these fields and keep these issues under active review. Subsequently these commitments were reaffirmed in the Strasbourg/Kehl Declaration in 2009 and the Lisbon Declaration in 2010.  Definitions While often used together, the terms arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation do not mean the same thing. In fact, experts usually consider them to reflect associated, but different areas in the same discipline or subject. Arms control Arms control is the broadest of the three terms and generally refers to mutually agreed-upon restraints or controls (usually between states) on the research, manufacture, or the levels of and/or locales of deployment of troops and weapons systems. Disarmament Disarmament, often inaccurately used as a synonym for arms control, refers to the act of eliminating or abolishing weapons (particularly offensive arms) either unilaterally (in the hope that one’s example will be followed) or reciprocally. Non-proliferation For the Alliance, “non-proliferation refers to all efforts to prevent proliferation from occurring, or should it occur, to reverse it by any other means than the use of military force.”¹ Non-proliferation usually applies to Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD), which the Alliance defines as a weapon that is "capable of a high order of destruction and of being used in such a manner as to destroy people, infrastructure or other resources on a large scale." WMD Proliferation Attempts made by state or non-state actors to develop, acquire, manufacture, possess, transport, transfer or use nuclear, chemical or biological weapons or devices and their means of delivery or related material, including precursors, without prejudice to the rights and obligations of the States Parties to the following agreements: the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction (CWC) and the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction (BTWC). According to NATO’s Comprehensive, Strategic-Level Policy for Preventing the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) and Defending Against Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Threats. The ways in which NATO effectively participates NATO contributes to arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation in many ways: through its policies, its activities and through its member countries. Conventional forces Allies have reduced their conventional forces significantly from Cold War levels. Allies remain committed to the regime of the Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) Treaty.  As a response to Russia`s unilateral “suspension” of its Treaty obligations in 2007, NATO CFE Allies have ceased implementing certain Treaty obligations vis-à-vis Russia in November 2011, while still continuing to implement fully their obligations with respect to all other CFE states parties. Allies stated that these decisions are fully reversible should Russia return to full implementation. At the Chicago Summit in May 2012, Allies reiterated their commitment to conventional arms control and expressed their determination to preserve, strengthen and modernise the conventional arms control regime in Europe, based on key principles and commitments. Nuclear forces NATO is committed to the goal of creating the conditions for a world without nuclear weapons – but reconfirms that, as long as there are nuclear weapons in the world, NATO will remain a nuclear Alliance. However, it will do so at the lowest possible level and with an appropriate mix of nuclear and conventional forces. The nuclear weapons committed to NATO have been reduced by more than 95 percent since the height of the Cold War. NATO nuclear weapon states have also reduced their nuclear arsenals and ceased production of highly-enriched uranium or plutonium for nuclear weapons. All Allies are parties to the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) and view it as an essential foundation for international peace and security. Armed forces Through its cooperation framework with non-member countries, the Alliance supports defence and security sector reform, emphasizing civilian control of the military, accountability, and restructuring of military forces to lower, affordable and usable levels. Small arms and light weapons (SALW), and mine action Allies are working with non-member countries and other international organizations to support the full implementation of the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in SALW in All its Aspects. NATO also supports mine action activities. All NATO member countries, with the exception of the United States, are party to the 1997 Mine Ban Treaty, often referred to as the Ottawa Convention. NATO’s PfP Trust Fund Policy was initiated in 2000 to assist countries in fulfilling their Ottawa Convention obligations to dispose of stockpiles of anti-personnel landmines. The policy was later expanded to include efforts to implement the UN Programme of Action on SALW. More recently, the Trust Policy has also been expanded to include projects addressing the consequences of defence reform. NATO/PfP Trust Funds may be initiated by a NATO member or partner country to tackle specific, practical issues linked to these areas. They are funded by voluntary contributions from individual NATO allies, partners, contact countries and organizations. Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) “With due respect to the primarily military mission of the Alliance, NATO will work actively to prevent the proliferation of WMD by State and non-State actors, to protect the Alliance from WMD threats should prevention fail, and be prepared for recovery efforts should the Alliance suffer a WMD attack or CBRN event, within its competencies and whenever it bring added value, through a comprehensive political, military and civilian appoach.”² NATO stepped up its activities in this area in 1999 with the launch of the WMD Initiative and the establishment of a WMD Centre at NATO Headquarters the following year. NATO Allies have also taken a comprehensive set of practical initiatives to defend their populations, territory and forces against potential WMD threats. As part of NATO outreach to Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) partners, Mediterranean Dialogue Countries, Istanbul Cooperation Initiative Countries and other partner countries, the NATO Conference on Arms Control, Disarmament and Non-Proliferation is the only annual conference, sponsored by an international organization, dealing with all types and aspects of weapons of mass destruction. Of particular importance is NATO’s outreach to and cooperation with the United Nations (UN), the European Union (EU), other regional organizations and multilateral initiatives that address WMD proliferation. NATO’s Comprehensive, Strategic-Level Policy for Preventing the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) and Defending Against Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Threats, Para 4. The evolution of NATO’s contribution to arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation Active policies in arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation have been an inseparable part of NATO’s contribution to security and stability since the Harmel Report of 1967. The Harmel Report This report formed the basis for NATO’s security policy. It outlined two objectives: maintaining a sufficient military capacity to act as an effective and credible deterrent against aggression and other forms of pressure while seeking to improve the East-West relations. The Alliance’s objectives in arms control have been tied to the achievement of both aims. It is therefore important that defence and arms control policies remain in harmony and are mutually reinforcing. The Comprehensive Concept of Arms Control and Disarmament In May 1989, NATO adopted a Comprehensive Concept of Arms Control and Disarmament, which allowed the Alliance to move forward in the sphere of arms control. It addressed the role of arms control in East-West relations, the principles of Alliance security and a number of guiding principles and objectives governing Allied policy in the nuclear, conventional and chemical fields of arms control. It clearly set out the interrelationships between arms control and defence policies and established the overall conceptual framework within which the Alliance sought progress in each area of its arms control agenda. The Alliance’s Strategic Concept NATO’s continued adherence to this policy was reaffirmed in the 2010 Strategic Concept (with regard to nuclear weapons): “It [This Strategic Concept] commits NATO to the goal of creating the conditions for a world without nuclear weapons – but reconfirms that, as long as there are nuclear weapons in the world, NATO will remain a nuclear Alliance.” The Strategic Concept, adopted at the Lisbon Summit in November 19-20 November 2010 continues, on a more general note: “NATO seeks its security at the lowest possible level of forces. Arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation contribute to peace, security and stability, and should ensure undiminished security for all Alliance members. We will continue to play our part in reinforcing arms control and in promoting disarmament of both conventional weapons and weapons of mass destruction, as well as non-proliferation efforts”. Summit declarations Allied leaders have reiterated this commitment in declarations made at previous summit meetings held in Washington (1999), Istanbul (2004), Riga (2006), Bucharest (2008), and in Strasbourg-Kehl (2009).  At the Strasbourg-Kehl Summit NATO’s Heads of State and Government endorsed NATO’s Comprehensive, Strategic-Level Policy for Preventing the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) and Defending Against Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Threats. The subject of arms control is also embedded in the 1997 NATO-Russia Founding Act and in the declaration made by Allied and Russian leaders at the 2002 Rome Summit, which set up the NATO-Russia Council. NATO bodies dealing with these issues A number of NATO bodies oversee different aspects of Alliance activities in the fields of arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation. Overall political guidance is provided by the North Atlantic Council, NATO’s highest political decision-making body. More detailed oversight of activities and policy in specific areas is provided by a number of bodies, including the High Level Task Force (HLTF) on Conventional Arms Control, the Nuclear Planning Group High Level Group (NPG/HLG), the Committee on Proliferation (CP) in politico-military as well as in defence format. Within NATO’s cooperative frameworks, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (in particular, the Ad Hoc Working Group on Small Arms and Light Weapons and Mine Action) and the NATO-Russia Council (in particular, the Arms Control, Disarmament, Non-Proliferation (ADN) format) have central roles.
  • North Atlantic Cooperation Council (NACC) (archived)
    The North Atlantic Cooperation Council (NACC) (archived) NATO Secretary General Manfred Wörner welcomes Hungarian Foreign Minister G. Jeszenszky The North Atlantic Cooperation Council (NACC) was established by the Allies on 20 December 1991 as a forum for dialogue and cooperation with NATO’s former Warsaw Pact adversaries. The NACC was a manifestation of the “hand of friendship” extended at the July 1990 summit meeting in London, when Allied leaders proposed a new cooperative relationship with all countries in Central and Eastern Europe in the wake of the end of the Cold War. Such was the pace of change in Europe at the time that inaugural meeting of the NACC itself witnessed an historic event: as the final communiqué was being agreed, the Soviet ambassador announced that the Soviet Union had dissolved during the meeting and that he now only represented the Russian Federation. The 11 former Soviet republics of the newly formed Commonwealth of Independent States were invited to participate in the NACC. Georgia and Azerbaijan joined the NACC in 1992 along with Albania, and the Central Asian republics soon followed suit.  In the immediate post-Cold War period, consultations within the NACC focused on residual Cold War security concerns, such as the withdrawal of Russian troops from the Baltic States, and on regional conflicts that were breaking out in parts of the former Soviert Union as well as in the former Yugoslavia. Political cooperation was launched on a number of security and defence-related issues. Military-to-military contacts and cooperation also got off the ground. The NACC broke new ground in many ways. Multilateral political consultation and cooperation helped build confidence in the early 1990s, paving the way for the launch of the Partnership for Peace (PfP) in 1994. The PfP programme offered partners the possibility to develop practical bilateral cooperation with NATO, choosing their own priorities for cooperation. The invitation to join the Partnership for Peace was addressed to all states participating in the NACC and other states participating in the Conference on Security and Cooperation (which became the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in 1995). The NACC was succeeded by the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997. This reflected the Allies’ desire to build a security forum, which would include Western European partners and be better suited for the increasingly sophisticated relationships being developed with partner countries. Many partners were deepening their cooperation with NATO, in particular in support of defence reform and the transition towards democracy, and several partners were by then also actively supporting the NATO-led peacekeeping operation in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
  • North Atlantic Council, The -
    The North Atlantic Council The North Atlantic Council is the principal political decision-making body within NATO. It brings together high-level representatives of each member country to discuss policy or operational questions requiring collective decisions. In sum, it provides a forum for wide-ranging consultation between members on all issues affecting their peace and security. All members have an equal right to express their views and share in the consensus on which decisions are based. Decisions are agreed upon on the basis of unanimity and common accord. There is no voting or decision by majority. This means that policies decided upon by the North Atlantic Council (NAC) are supported by and are the expression of the collective will of all the sovereign states that are members of the Alliance and are accepted by all of them. Strictly speaking, the NAC is not the only body within NATO that carries such a high degree of authority. The Nuclear Planning Group (NPG) has comparable authority for matters within its specific area of competence. However, in practice, the NAC convenes far more frequently than the NPG and covers a broader scope of themes – as broad as the member countries decide it should be. Consequently, it is commonly referred to as NATO’s principal decision-making body. Effective political authority and powers of decision The NAC has effective political authority and powers of decision. It is the only body that was established by the North Atlantic Treaty, under Article 9: “The Parties hereby establish a council, on which each of them shall be represented, to consider matters concerning the implementation of this Treaty. The council shall be so organized as to be able to meet promptly at any time. The council shall set up such subsidiary bodies as may be necessary; in particular it shall establish immediately a defense committee which shall recommend measures for the implementation of Articles 3 and 5.” In addition to being the only body invested with the authority to set up “such subsidiary bodies as may be necessary”, it is also the ultimate authority at the head of a large, intricate network of committees and working groups. It is often referred to as “the Council”. The NAC is the principal political decision-making body and oversees the political and military process relating to security issues affecting the whole Alliance. Items discussed and decisions taken at meetings of the Council cover all aspects of the Organization's activities and are frequently based on reports and recommendations prepared by subordinate committees at the Council's request. Equally, subjects may be raised by the Secretary General or any one of the national representatives, in particular under Article 4 of the Washington Treaty: “The Parties will consult together whenever, in the opinion of any of them, the territorial integrity, political independence or security of any of the Parties is threatened.” Representation at different levels Representatives of all member countries of NATO have a seat at the NAC. It can meet at the level of “permanent representatives” (or “ambassadors”), at the level of foreign and defence ministers, and at the level of heads of state and government. Its decisions have the same status and validity at whatever level it meets. The NAC is chaired by the Secretary General. In the absence of the Secretary General, the Deputy Secretary General chairs the meetings. The longest serving ambassador on the Council assumes the title of dean of the Council. Primarily a ceremonial function, the dean may be called upon to play a more specific presiding role, for example in convening meetings and chairing discussions at the time of the selection of a new Secretary General. At ministerial meetings of foreign ministers, one country's foreign minister assumes the role of honorary president. The position rotates annually among members in the order of the English alphabet. The ambassadors sit round the table in order of nationality, following the English alphabetical order. The same procedure is followed throughout the NATO committee structure. Working procedures The NAC meets at least every week and often more frequently, at the level of permanent representatives; it meets twice a year at the level of ministers of foreign affairs, three times a year at the level of ministers of defence, and occasionally at the summit level with the participation of prime ministers and heads of state and government. Permanent representatives act on instruction from their capitals, informing and explaining the views and the policy decisions of their governments to their colleagues around the table. Conversely they report back to their national authorities on the views expressed and positions taken by other governments, informing them of new developments and keeping them abreast of movement toward consensus on important issues or areas where national positions diverge. Each country represented at the Council table or on any of its subordinate committees retains complete sovereignty and responsibility for its own decisions. Preparing the Council's work The work of the Council is prepared by subordinate committees with responsibility for specific areas of policy. Much of this work involves the Deputies Committee, consisting of Deputy Permanent Representatives. The Council has an important public profile and issues declarations and communiqués explaining the Alliance's policies and decisions. These documents are normally published after ministerial or summit meetings. The Deputies Committee has particular responsibility for preparing such documents and meets in advance of ministerial meetings to draft the texts for Council approval. A similar role is played by the Nuclear Planning Staff Group on behalf of the Nuclear Planning Group. Other aspects of political work may be handled by the Political and Partnerships Committee. Depending on the topic under discussion, the respective senior committee with responsibility for the subject assumes the leading role in preparing Council meetings and following up Council decisions. When the Council meets at the level of defence ministers, or is dealing with defence matters and questions relating to defence strategy, senior committees such as the Defence Policy and Planning Committee may be involved as principal advisory bodies. If financial matters are on the Council's agenda, the Resource Policy and Planning Board will be responsible to the Council for preparing relevant aspects of its work. Supporting the Council Direct support to the Council is provided by the Secretary of the Council, who ensures that Council mandates are executed and its decisions recorded and circulated. A small Council Secretariat ensures the bureaucratic and logistical aspects of the NAC's work, while the relevant divisions of the International Staff support the work of committees reporting to the NAC. Generally speaking, the entire International Staff at NATO HQ supports the work of the Council, either directly or indirectly, and helps to ensure that Council decisions are implemented.
  • Nuclear forces, NATO's -
    NATO's nuclear forces In the Strategic Concept adopted by Allies at the Lisbon Summit at the end of 2010, NATO committed to the goal of creating the conditions for a world without nuclear weapons. The Strategic Concept also reconfirmed that, as long as there are nuclear weapons in the world, NATO will remain a nuclear Alliance.  Deterrence, based on an appropriate mix of nuclear and conventional capabilities, remains a core element of NATO’s strategy, even though the circumstances in which any use of nuclear weapons might have to be contemplated are extremely remote.  What does this mean in practice? UK MOD - Crown Copyright 2012 The supreme guarantee of the security of the Allies is provided by the strategic nuclear of forces the Alliance, particularly those of the United States; the independent strategic nuclear forces of the United Kingdom and France, which have a deterrent role of their own, contribute to the overall deterrence and security of the Allies. The Allies concerned ensure that all components of NATO’s nuclear deterrent are safe, secure and effective. The dramatic changes in the Euro-Atlantic strategic landscape brought about by the end of the Cold War have been reflected in the Alliance’s 1991, 1999 and 2010 Strategic Concepts.  The Alliance has continued to take far-reaching steps to adapt its overall policy and defence posture to the new security environment. NATO's reduced reliance on nuclear forces has been manifested in a steady and very significant reductions in the number of systems, overall weapon numbers and readiness levels since the end of the Cold War. NATO no longer has standing peacetime nuclear contingency plans, and NATO's nuclear forces do not target any country.  Mechanisms Political oversight and control are the cornerstones of NATO's nuclear posture and are shared among member countries.  NATO members agreed to ensure the broadest possible participation of Allies in collective defence planning on nuclear roles, in peacetime basing of nuclear forces, and in command, control and consultation arrangements. Within the NATO HQ structure, the Nuclear Planning Group (NPG) provides a forum in which nuclear and non-nuclear Allies alike (except France, which has decided not to participate) engage in the development of the Alliance's nuclear policy, and in decisions on NATO's nuclear posture.  The NPG is composed of ministers of defence, and is presided over by NATO’s Secretary General.  It meets around once per year, but has subordinate and advisory groups which meet more frequently. New members are full members of the Alliance in all respects, including their commitment to the Alliance's policy on nuclear weapons, and the guarantees which that policy affords to all Allies. Evolution NATO will review its posture to reflect the current strategic environment. As an example of this, NATO has been conducting a Deterrence and Defence Posture Review (DDPR), in which nuclear policy and posture have been examined as part of a review of NATO’s overall posture in deterring and defending against the full range of threats to the Alliance. Alliance leaders are expected to agree to its final report at the Chicago summit.
  • Nuclear Planning Group (NPG)
    The Nuclear Planning Group (NPG) The Nuclear Planning Group acts as the senior body on nuclear matters in the Alliance and discusses specific policy issues associated with nuclear forces. The Alliance's nuclear policy is kept under constant review and is modified and adapted in the light of new developments. The Defence Ministers of all member countries, except France, meet at regular intervals in the NPG, where they discuss specific policy issues associated with nuclear forces. The Alliance's nuclear policy is kept under review and decisions are taken jointly to modify or adapt it in the light of new developments and to update and adjust planning and consultation procedures. NATO’s senior body on nuclear policy issues Whilst the North Atlantic Council (NAC) is the ultimate authority within NATO, the NPG (which meets annually in Defence Ministers format at 27, minus France) acts as the senior body on nuclear matters within NATO. Its discussions cover a broad range of nuclear policy matters, including the safety, security and survivability of nuclear weapons, communications and information systems, as well as deployment issues. It also covers wider questions of common concern such as nuclear arms control and nuclear proliferation. The role of the NPG is to review the Alliance's nuclear policy in the light of the ever-changing security challenges of the international environment and to adapt it if necessary. It provides a forum in which NATO member countries can participate in the development of the Alliance's nuclear policy and in decisions on NATO's nuclear posture, irrespective of whether or not they themselves maintain nuclear weapons. The policies that are agreed upon therefore represent the common position of all the participating countries. Decisions are taken by consensus within the NPG, as is the case for all NATO committees. Participants All member countries, with the exception of France, which has decided not to participate, are part of the NPG. It is chaired by the Secretary General of NATO. Working procedures The work of the NPG is prepared by an NPG Staff Group. This group is composed of members of the national delegations of all participating member countries. The Staff Group prepares meetings of the NPG Permanent Representatives and carries out detailed work on their behalf. It generally meets once a week and at other times, as necessary. The senior advisory body to the NPG on nuclear policy and planning issues is the NPG High Level Group (HLG). In 1998-1999, the HLG also took over the functions and responsibilities of the former Senior Level Weapons Protection Group (SLWPG) which was charged with overseeing nuclear weapons safety, security and survivability matters. The HLG is chaired by the United States and is composed of national policy makers (at policy director level) and experts from Allied capitals. It meets several times a year to discuss aspects of NATO's nuclear policy, planning and force posture, and matters concerning the safety, security and survivability of nuclear weapons. The NPG itself meets, when necessary, at the level of Ambassadors; and once a year at the level of Ministers of Defence. Evolution The NPG was founded in December 1966, when the Defence Planning Committee in Ministerial Session accepted the recommendation of the Special Committee of Defence Ministers, chaired by Robert McNamara of the United States, to establish a consultative process on nuclear doctrine within NATO. Ministers implemented these recommendations by creating the Nuclear Defence Affairs Committee (NDAC), which included all NATO members, and the NPG, which was restricted to nations participating in NATO’s integrated military structure, and was mandated to carry out detailed work on nuclear issues. In order to facilitate the NPG’s work, only seven nations sat on the Group at any one time. The United States, United Kingdom, Italy and West Germany were permanent members, while appointments to the other three NPG seats lasted for one year, and rotated amongst the eligible nations. The NDAC met once per year at ministerial level, meeting for the last time in 1973. The Portuguese Cárnation Revolution in 1974, raised some security concerns, which led to the cancellation of the planned NDAC. Thereafter no meeting of the NDAC has convened. Even though the NDAC has never been formally abolished, its work was taken over by the NPG, which then became the only formal NATO body dealing with nuclear affairs. The rotational membership of the NPG was ended in 1979 in recognition of the increasing importance to all members of NATO’s nuclear policy and posture.