United Nations, NATO’s relations with the -
NATO’s relations with the United Nations NATO and the United Nations (UN) share a commitment to maintaining international peace and security. The two organizations have been cooperating in this area since the early 1990s. At the NATO Chicago Summit in May 2012, NATO Heads of State and Government reiterated commitments made at the Lisbon Summit in 2010 to continue enhancing cooperation with the UN through political dialogue and practical cooperation, in line with the Declaration on UN/NATO Secretariat cooperation of September 2008. They welcomed the strengthened cooperation and enhanced liaison between NATO and the UN that has been achieved since the Lisbon Summit in November 2010. NATO’s new Strategic Concept, which was approved at the Lisbon Summit, commits the Alliance to prevent crises, manage conflicts and stabilize post-conflict situations, including by working more closely with NATO’s international partners, most importantly the UN and the European Union. The UN is at the core of the framework of international organizations within which the Alliance operates, a principle that is enshrined in NATO’s founding treaty. UN Security Council resolutions have provided the mandate for NATO’s operations in the Western Balkans and in Afghanistan, and the framework for NATO’s training mission in Iraq. More recently, NATO’s operation to protect civilians and civilian-populated areas under threat of attack in Libya in 2011 was carried out in support of UN Security Council Resolution 1973. NATO has also provided support to UN-sponsored operations, including logistical assistance to the African Union’s UN-endorsed peacekeeping operations in Darfur, Sudan, and in Somalia; support for UN disaster-relief operations in Pakistan, following the massive earthquake in 2005; and escorting merchant ships carrying World Food Programme humanitarian supplies off the coast of Somalia. Close cooperation between NATO and the UN and its agencies is an important element in the development of an international “Comprehensive Approach” to crisis management and operations. Over the years, NATO-UN cooperation has been extended beyond operations to include consultations between NATO and UN specialised bodies on issues such as crisis assessment and management, civil-military cooperation, training and education, logistics, combating human trafficking, mine action, civilian capabilities, women and peace and security, arms control and non-proliferation, and the fight against terrorism. The complexity of today’s security challenges has required a broader dialogue between NATO and the UN. In 2010, following the signing of the 2008 UN-NATO declaration on cooperation, NATO reinforced its liaison arrangements by establishing the post of NATO Civilian Liaison Officer to the United Nations, in addition to that of a Military Liaison Officer, established in 1999. This enhanced cooperation is an integral part of NATO’s contribution to a Comprehensive Approach as outlined at the Bucharest Summit in 2008 . Framework for cooperation NATO’s Secretary General reports regularly to the UN Secretary General on progress in NATO-led operations and on other key decisions of the North Atlantic Council in the area of crisis management and in the fight against terrorism. In recent years, staff-level meetings and high-level visits have become more frequent. The UN is invited to attend NATO ministerial meetings. In September 2008, building on the experience of over a decade of working together, the Secretaries General of the two organizations agreed to establish a framework for expanded consultation and cooperation. This includes regular exchanges and dialogue at senior and working levels on political and operational issues. Increasing cooperation will significantly contribute to addressing the threats and challenges that the international community faces. Within this framework, cooperation will be further developed between NATO and the UN on issues of common interest, including in communication and information-sharing; capacity-building, training and exercises; lessons learned, planning and support for contingencies; and operational coordination and support. Cooperation will continue to develop in a practical way, taking into account each organization’s specific mandate, expertise, procedures and capabilities. Staff level meetings take place on an annual basis between the Secretariats of NATO and the UN. Similar meetings also take place with other UN organizations, such as the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), and NATO experts participate in events organized by other UN bodies. As detailed below, NATO contributes to the work of a number of UN committees and bodies set up to address the important challenges of terrorism; the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery; promoting the rights and role of women in conflict; protecting children affected by armed conflict; the illicit trade in small arms and light weapons; and disaster relief. Counter-terrorism NATO contributes actively to the work of the UN Counter-Terrorism Committee (UN CTC) – established in accordance with UN Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1373 in the aftermath of the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States – and participates in special meetings of the Committee bringing together international, regional and sub-regional organizations involved in this process. NATO and the UN conduct reciprocal briefings on progress in the area of counter-terrorism, in their respective committees. NATO is also committed to supporting the UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy. Non-proliferation NATO contributes to the work of the UN Security Council Committee established following the adoption of UNSCR 1540 (2004), which addresses the threat to international peace and security posed by the proliferation of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons and their means of delivery. In this context, since 2004 the Alliance has been organizing a string of international non-proliferation seminars with the active participation of partner countries and international organizations. In addition, NATO addresses the implementation of UNSCR 1540 at regional and sub-regional levels in order to better identify the real needs of nations for assistance. Women, peace and security NATO remains committed to the full implementation of UNSCR 1325 on Women, Peace and Security and related Resolutions, which are aimed at protecting and promoting women’s rights, role and participation in preventing and ending conflict. In line with the NATO/Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council Policy, the Alliance has together with its partners made significant progress in implementing the goals set out in these Resolutions. In this regard, NATO has endorsed a Strategic Progress Report on mainstreaming UNSCR 1325 and related Resolutions into NATO-led Operations and Missions. Furthermore, in August 2012, NATO Secretary General appointed a NATO Special Representative for these important issues . In this context and to further advance this work, the Allies have tasked the North Atlantic Council to continue implementing the Policy and the Action Plan; undertake a review of the practical implications of UNSCR 1325 for the conduct of NATO operations and missions; further integrate gender perspectives into Alliance activities; and submit a report for the next NATO Summit. Protecting children in armed conflict NATO also remains committed to the implementation of UNSCR 1612 and related Resolutions on the protection of children affected by armed conflict. At the NATO Summit in Chicago, NATO leaders expressed their concern at the growing range of threats to children in armed conflict and strongly condemned that they are increasingly subject to recruitment, sexual violence and targeted attacks. NATO-led operations, such as the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan, are taking an active role in preventing, monitoring and responding to violations against children, including through pre-deployment training and a violations alert mechanism. This approach, based on practical field-oriented measures, demonstrates NATO’s firm commitment on this issue, as does the recent appointment of a NATO Focal Point for Children and Armed Conflict in charge of maintaining a close dialogue with the UN. NATO-UN cooperation in this field is creating a set of good practices to be integrated in NATO training modules and taken into account in possible future operations. Small arms and light weapons NATO contributes also at the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) in All its Aspects, adopted in July 2001 by nearly 150 countries, including all NATO member states. It consists of measures at the national, regional and global levels in the areas of legislation, destruction of weapons that have been confiscated, seized or collected, as well as international cooperation and assistance to strengthen the ability of states in identifying and tracing illicit arms and light weapons. Every two years, the UN holds the Biennial Meeting of States to Consider the Implementation of the Programme of Action. Through the Ad Hoc Working Group on SALW, established in 1999 within the framework of the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, NATO supports the implementation of the Programme of Action with outreach activities, including at regional and sub-regional level. Disaster relief NATO also co-operates with the UN in support of disaster relief operations. Through the Euro-Atlantic Disaster Response Coordination Centre (EADRCC), NATO coordinates consequence-management efforts with UN and other bodies and shares information on disaster assistance. All the EADRCC’s tasks are performed in close cooperation with the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN OCHA), which retains the primary role in the coordination of international disaster relief operations. The EADRCC is a regional coordination mechanism, supporting and complementing the UN efforts. In the case of a disaster requiring international assistance, it is up to individual NATO member states and partner countries to decide whether to provide assistance, based on information received from EADRCC. Evolution of NATO-UN cooperation in the field Working relations between the United Nations and the Alliance were limited during the Cold War. This has changed in 1992, against the background of growing conflict in the Western Balkans, where their respective roles in crisis management led to an intensification of practical cooperation between the two organizations in the field. Bringing peace to the former Yugoslavia In July 1992, NATO ships belonging to the Alliance's Standing Naval Force Mediterranean, assisted by NATO Maritime Patrol Aircraft, began monitoring operations in the Adriatic in support of a UN arms embargo against all Republics of the former Yugoslavia. A few months later, in November 1992, NATO and the Western European Union (WEU) began enforcement operations in support of UN Security Council resolutions aimed at preventing the escalation of the conflict. The readiness of the Alliance to support peacekeeping operations under the authority of the UN Security Council was formally stated by NATO foreign ministers in December 1992. A number of measures were subsequently taken, including joint maritime operations under the authority of the NATO and WEU Councils: NATO air operations; close air support for the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR); air strikes to protect UN "Safe Areas"; and contingency planning for other options which the United Nations might take. Following the signature of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (the Dayton Agreement) on 14 December 1995, NATO was given a mandate by the United Nations, on the basis of UN Security Council Resolution 1031, to implement the military aspects of the peace agreement. NATO’s first peacekeeping operation, the Implementation Force (IFOR) began operations in Bosnia and Herzegovina to fulfill this mandate in December 1995. One year later, it was replaced by a NATO-led Stabilisation Force (SFOR). Throughout their mandates both multinational forces worked closely with other international organizations and humanitarian agencies on the ground, including UN agencies such as the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the UN International Police Task Force (IPTF). From the onset of the conflict in Kosovo in 1998 and throughout the crisis, close contacts were maintained between the UN Secretary General and NATO’s Secretary General. Actions were taken by the Alliance in support of UN Security Council resolutions both during and after the conflict. The Kosovo Force (KFOR) was deployed on the basis of UN Security Council Resolution 1244 of 12 June 1999 to provide an international security presence as the prerequisite for peace and reconstruction of Kosovo. Throughout its deployment, KFOR has worked closely with the UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) as well as with other international and local stakeholders. In 2000 and 2001, NATO and the United Nations also cooperated successfully in containing major ethnic discord in southern Serbia and preventing a full-blown civil war in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia¹. Afghanistan Cooperation between NATO and the UN is playing a key role in Afghanistan. The Alliance formally took over the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF), a UN-mandated force, in August 2003. Originally tasked with helping to provide security in and around Kabul, ISAF has subsequently been authorized by a series of UN Security Council resolutions to expand its presence into other regions of the country to extend the authority of the central government and to facilitate development and reconstruction. NATO and ISAF work closely with the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) and other international actors that are supporting governance, reconstruction and development. The close cooperation takes place in various settings, in Afghanistan as well as in UN and NATO capitals. It includes co-membership of the Joint Co-ordination and Monitoring Board (JCMB) overseeing the implementation of the internationally endorsed Afghanistan Compact, co-chairmanship together with the Afghan Government of the Executive Steering Committee for Provincial Reconstruction Teams, and other joint Afghan-International Community bodies. The practical close work also covers cooperation between UNAMA, ISAF and the NATO Senior Civilian Representative in Kabul on civil-military issues such as operational planning. Beyond Kabul city, close civil-military cooperation between UNAMA and ISAF is also being pursued in those provinces where both ISAF and UNAMA are present. This practical work is now being developed comprehensively in the context of UNAMA’s Integrated Approach to selected prioritized Afghan districts. Iraq Under the terms of UN Security Council Resolution 1546 and at the request of the Iraqi Interim Government, NATO provided assistance in training and equipping Iraqi security forces through the NATO Training Mission-Iraq (NTM-I) from 2004 to end 2011. Supporting African Union missions In June 2005, following a request from the African Union and in close coordination with the United Nations and the European Union, NATO agreed to support the African Union’s Mission in Sudan (AMIS), which is trying to end the continuing violence in the Darfur region. NATO assisted by airlifting peacekeepers from African troop-contributing countries to the region and also helped train AU troops in how to run a multinational military headquarters and how to manage intelligence. Following a request from the African Union in 2007, NATO accepted to assist the African Union mission in Somalia (AMISOM) by providing airlift support to AU member states willing to deploy on this mission. NATO is also providing capacity building assistance for the African Union via a Senior Military Liaison Office in Addis Ababa. The Alliance also protects UN shipping in support of AMISOM. Deterring piracy In October 2008, NATO agreed to a request from the UN Secretary General to deploy ships off the coast of Somalia to deter piracy and escort merchant ships carrying World Food Programme cargo. Libya On 27 March, NATO Allies decided to take on the whole military operation in Libya under United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973. The purpose of Operation Unified Protector was to protect civilians and civilian-populated areas under threat of attack. NATO implemented all military aspects of the UN Resolution. Allies moved swiftly and decisively to enforce the arms embargo and no-fly zone called for in the resolution, and to take further measures to protect civilians and civilian populated areas from attack. Operation Unified Protector was successfully concluded on 31 October 2011. 1. Turkey recognizes the Republic of Macedonia with its constitutional name. The North Atlantic Treaty and the UN Charter The Charter of the United Nations, signed in San Francisco on 26 June 1945 by fifty nations, provides the legal basis for the creation of NATO and acknowledges the overall responsibility of the UN Security Council for international peace and security. The preamble to NATO’s North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington on 4 April 1949 makes it clear that the UN Charter is the framework within which the Alliance operates. In its opening phrases, the signatories of the Treaty reaffirm their faith in the purposes and principles of the Charter. In Article 1 they also undertake to settle international disputes by peaceful means and to refrain from the threat or use of force in any manner inconsistent with the purposes of the UN Charter. Article 5 of the Treaty makes explicit reference to Article 51 of the UN Charter in asserting the right of the Allies to take, individually or collectively, such action as they deem necessary for their self-defence. Moreover, it commits the member countries to terminating any armed attack and all measures taken as a result, when the UN Security Council has itself taken the measures necessary to restore and maintain international peace and security. Further reference to the UN Charter can be found in Article 7 of the North Atlantic Treaty. It states that the Treaty does not affect and shall not be interpreted as affecting in any way the rights and obligations of Allies under the Charter, and reaffirms the primary responsibility of the UN Security Council for the maintenance of international peace and security. And finally, in Article 12, a clause was included in the Treaty providing for it to be reviewed after ten years, if any of the Parties to it so requested. It stipulated that the review would take place in the light of new developments affecting peace and security in the North Atlantic area, including the development of universal and regional arrangements under the UN Charter.
Uzbekistan, NATO's relations with
NATO's relations with Uzbekistan Left to right: President Islam Karimov shaking hands with NATO Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen. Uzbekistan is actively developing relations with NATO and has identified a broad range of areas for dialogue and practical cooperation through its Individual Partnership and Cooperation Programme (IPCP). This IPCP forms the basis of its cooperation with NATO and includes, for instance, the development of armed forces and countering modern security threats. Defence-related fields of cooperation are being carried out primarily through the Planning and Review Process (PARP), which Uzbekistan joined in 2002. Other areas of practical cooperation include education, training of personnel, civil emergency planning and science. Uzbekistan first engaged in relations with NATO in 1992, when it joined the North Atlantic Cooperation Council (later replaced by the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997). It has since joined a series of other programmes to reinforce its foreign policy strategy of promoting peace and stability in Central Asia as one of its key priorities is to prevent wars and armed conflicts. Key areas of cooperation Security cooperation From 2002 onwards, Uzbekistan played an important role in supporting Allied operations in Afghanistan. Uzbekistan permitted Germany the use of its airfield at Termez. It also allowed over-flight and transit permission for Allied forces and supplies. Uzbekistan continues to be a main transit route for humanitarian supplies to Afghanistan, the majority of which is delivered via the Hairaton Bridge. Specialists from Uzbekistan also assisted in implementing tangible infrastructure projects in Afghanistan, including the reconstruction of ten bridges connecting the northern part of the country with Kabul. In 2009, Uzbekistan, along with Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus, completed an agreement with NATO allowing the transportation of non-lethal ISAF cargo to Afghanistan by rail. Defence and security sector reform NATO supports the democratic and institutional reform processes in Uzbekistan. Specifically in the area of defence and security sector reform, NATO and individual Allies have considerable expertise that Uzbekistan can draw upon. Uzbekistan’s participation in the PARP since 2002 aims to attain interoperability between elements of its armed forces and those of NATO Allies. While there was a pause in PARP cooperation following the events in Andijan in 2005, Uzbekistan reaffirmed its participation in the programme in 2010. Along with several other countries in Central Asia, Uzbekistan has received counter-terrorism training through NATO-funded courses. In May 2010, officials from Uzbekistan attended an Advanced Training Course, funded through NATO’s Science for Peace and Security Programme, to learn the latest counter-terrorism methods and strategies. Uzbekistan has also benefited from counter-narcotics training, which has resulted in improved capabilities to interdict narcotics trafficking. Uzbekistan continues to participate in seminars and workshops on defence policy and strategy within the PfP framework, as well as military education of Uzbek officers, with an emphasis on English language training. Since 2013, Uzbekistan has engaged in a Defence Education and Enhancement Programme (DEEP) with NATO. This programme provides expertise on how to build, develop and reform educational institutions in the security, defence and military domain. Over the next three years, NATO-led multinational teams of academics will provide assistance in developing four courses in the fields of NATO familiarisation, NATO staff planning procedures, counter-terrorism, and civil emergency planning. Work has also begun on the establishment of a Partnership for Peace Training Centre in Uzbekistan. Civil emergency planning Civil emergency planning and disaster-relief coordination are significant areas of cooperation. Uzbekistan hosted the first EAPC exercise held in Central Asia in April 2003. Exercise Ferghana 2003 simulated an international response to a major earthquake in the region. NATO and Uzbekistan are continuing cooperation in this area today. Uzbekistan is developing its civil response capacity for natural and man-made emergency situations in consultation with the Allies. This includes updating planning procedures and organisation methods for rescue operations. Science and environment Under the Science for Peace and Security (SPS) Programme, Uzbekistan has received grant awards for over 50 projects for scientific and environmental collaboration, while scientists and experts from Uzbekistan have had leading roles in 164 activities, including in various cooperative activities as participants and key speakers. Uzbekistan has participated in a number of scientific projects with NATO Allies, including the Virtual Silk Highway project, which aims to improve internet access for academic and research communities in countries of the Caucasus and Central Asia through a satellite-based network. In May 2013, a workshop held in Samarkand, Uzbekistan addressed the prevention of potential crises and conflicts through disaster forecasting, modeling, and sustainable development. Also ongoing is a multi-year research project to assess and monitor trans-boundary water pollution – an area of crucial importance to the social and economic well-being of populations in the region. The project includes experts from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. Public Information In every partner country an embassy of one of the NATO member states serves as a contact point and operates as a channel for disseminating information about the role and policies of the Alliance. The current NATO Contact Point Embassy in Uzbekistan is the embassy of Italy. Cooperation in the area of public diplomacy with Uzbekistan aims to raise awareness of the Alliance and the benefits of partnership with NATO as well as engaging with key opinion formers and civil society. In 2014, NATO opened a Depository Library in Uzbekistan’s University of World Economy and Diplomacy in Tashkent. Academics, government officials and opinion formers from Uzbekistan are also regularly invited to visit NATO Headquarters for briefings about the Alliance. Framework for cooperation Dialogue takes place within the framework of the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC). The NATO Secretary General’s Special Representative for the Caucasus and Central Asia, James Appathurai, conducts high-level political dialogue with Uzbek authorities through regular visits to the country. The NATO Liaison Officer in Central Asia is based in Tashkent and is responsible for regularly engaging with the government on cooperation. Under the PfP programme, NATO and Uzbekistan are developing practical cooperation in a number of areas through the country’s IPCP, PARP and the DEEP. Evolution of relations NATO-Uzbekistan relations began in 1992, when Uzbekistan joined the North Atlantic Cooperation Council (later replaced by the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997). Relations further developed in 1994, when Uzbekistan signed up to the PfP programme, and in 2002, when the country acceded to the PARP. The process of supporting Uzbekistan’s domestic reforms intensified, and the country’s role in PfP activities continued to increase. While Uzbekistan-NATO relations declined to some extent following the events in Andijan in 2005, currently NATO and Uzbekistan engage in regular dialogue through the EAPC and are actively redeveloping cooperation in a number of specific fields. Key milestones 1992 Uzbekistan joins the North Atlantic Cooperation Council, renamed the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997. 1994 Uzbekistan joins the Partnership for Peace (PfP). 1995 Uzbekistan signs a security agreement with NATO. 1996 Uzbekistan and NATO agree on the country's first Individual Partnership Programme (IPP). Uzbekistan signs the PfP Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA) with the Allies. 2002 Uzbekistan is connected to the Virtual Silk Highway. Uzbekistan joins the PfP Planning and Review Process (PARP). 2003 NATO and partner countries complete a major disaster response exercise in Uzbekistan. 2005 NATO’s Secretary General, Jaap de Hoop Scheffer, calls for an independent investigation into the events at Andijan in May; the NATO Parliamentary Assembly adopts a declaration also recommending an independent investigation into these events. 2008 Uzbekistan signs an agreement to carry out a Science for Peace and Security project aimed to destroy the country’s stocks of mélange, a very toxic substance. 2009 Conversion of the country’s stock of the toxic mélange into a harmless chemical begins near Samarkand. 2010 NATO completes arrangements with several countries, including Uzbekistan, for the transit of non-lethal ISAF cargo to Afghanistan by rail. Mélange conversion project successfully completed. 2011 President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Islam Karimov, visits NATO Headquarters and meets with the NATO Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen in January. 2012 Uzbekistan’s Foreign Minister Abdulaziz Kamilov and Defence Minister Kabul Berdiev attend the 25th NATO Summit in Chicago. 2013 In April, Uzbekistan agrees its first Individual Partnership Cooperation Programme with NATO. Office of the NATO Liaison Officer opens in Tashkent. A Defence Education and Enhancement Programme (DEEP) is established with Uzbekistan. 2014 NATO Depository Library is opened at the University of World Economy and Diplomacy in Tashkent, Uzbekistan.