NATO - North Atlantic Treaty Organization

  • Darfur, NATO’s assistance to the African Union for
    Assisting the African Union in Darfur, Sudan Information on NATO assistance to the African Union can be found on: http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/topics_8191.htm
  • Defence, Smart -
    Smart Defence
  • Defence Against Terrorism Programme of Work (DAT POW)
    Defence Against Terrorism Programme of Work (DAT POW) NATO is developing new, cutting-edge technologies and capabilities to protect troops and civilians against terrorist attacks. The aim of the Alliance’s Defence Against Terrorism Programme of Work (DAT POW) is to prevent non-conventional attacks, such as suicide attacks with improvised explosive devices (IEDs), and mitigate other challenges, such as attacks on critical infrastructure. As the threat is urgent, most projects launched under the DAT POW are focused on finding solutions that can be fielded in the short term. The programme meets critical military requirements and addresses Alliance shortfalls. The DAT POW development is driven by the latest political guidance, provided by the 2010 Strategic concept and Lisbon Summit Declaration. It is influenced by NATO’s new counter-terrorism policy guidelines endorsed at the 2012 Chicago Summit. A unique initiative by lead nations The DAT POW is a unique programme built on the principle of common funding. It is a fast route to capability development. Under the DAT POW, individual NATO countries, with support and contributions from other member countries and NATO bodies, lead projects to develop advanced technologies or counter-measures which meet the most urgent security needs in the face of terrorism. This programme was approved by NATO leaders at the 2004 Istanbul Summit to strengthen the Alliance’s contribution to combating terrorism by enhancing capability development, supporting operations and fostering partnerships. Three capability umbrellas to engage DAT POW stakeholders The DAT POW projects are rationalised under three capability umbrellas: Incident management Force protection and survivability Network engagement. 1) Incident management This umbrella covers training and development initiatives to improve organisation and coordination capabilities in the event of an attack. Protection of harbours and ports The safe and uninterrupted functioning of ports and harbours is critical to the global economy and it is essential that maritime assets be made as secure as possible. To enhance maritime protection, various technologies are being explored. These include sensor nets, electro-optical detectors, rapid-reaction capabilities and unmanned underwater vehicles. A maritime mission planning tool, known as “Safe Port”, is being developed under the leadership of Portugal. Ongoing work led by Poland aims to develop an underwater magnetic barrier to complement sonar systems currently used to detect underwater threats. Additional trials, experimentation and exercises are being organised by Iceland and the NATO Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation on protection of ports, civilian/military cooperation, protection against improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and integration of multiple systems. 2) Force protection and survivability This umbrella covers training and development initiatives “to minimise the vulnerability of personnel, facilities, equipment and operations to any threat and in all situations”. Reducing the vulnerability of wide-body civilian and military aircraft to potential threats such as man-portable air defence systems (MANPADs) A range of infrared and electronic counter-measures is under development. These have been applied to large aircraft, helicopters and fast jets. Every year, exercises and tests are organised to improve the systems and equipment.  The United Kingdom is the lead nation for this initiative and the NATO Air Force Armaments Group (NAFAG) has provided critical expertise and support to the annual field trials. Detecting, protecting against and defeating chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) weapons Ideally, terrorists should be prevented from using CBRN weapons.  Should prevention fail, there is a requirement to protect forces and populations against their effects. France, as the first lead nation in this effort, developed a work plan which included live exercises, CBRN agent sampling and identification analysis. A broad range of technologies were tested against a number of CBRN-related threats. Since 2012, the Czech Republic has been developing a prototype for chemical detection and annually, for training purposes, Canada organises Exercise Precise Response, exploring a scenario with a live CBRN agent. DAT POW also supports the Joint CBRN Defence Centre of Excellence, in Vyskov, Czech Republic, in its efforts to set up CBRN Reach back capabilities, i.e. ensuring adequate CBRN expertise is available to the NATO Command Structure and Allied forces in theatres of operations. Countering improvised explosive devices This effort is led by several NATO bodies including the Counter Improvised Explosive Devices (C-IED) Centre of Excellence in Madrid, Spain. Various technologies to defeat IEDs have been explored, in particular stand-off detection, and C-IED information management solutions across the Alliance are being assessed. In 2012, DAT POW, with the NATO Communications and Information Agency (NCIA), organised a route-clearance demonstration in Germany to improve doctrine, share best practice and standardize NATO route-clearance operations. Subsequently, the Military Engineering Centre of Excellence (MILENG COE), in Ingolstadt, Germany has furthered this work by improving the Allied Route Clearance doctrine and illustrating it at a 2014 demonstration. Additional C-IED-related projects led by NCIA involve automated data mining and scanning systems for passengers. Explosive ordnance disposal and consequence management Here the objective is to improve NATO’s capabilities, the training of explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) teams and management of the consequences of an explosion. DAT POW supports the annual Northern Challenge exercise, led by Iceland, which involves underwater EOD/IED and conventional munitions disposal (CMD), and is open to NATO and Partnership for Peace countries. DAT POW supports the 2014 NATO EOD demonstrations and trials, led by the NATO EOD Centre of Excellence in Trencin, Slovakia. The strong community of interest includes experts from partner countries, such as the Irish Defence Forces’ ordnance school. Developing non-lethal capabilities) The NATO operational community has stressed the need for better response capabilities to minimise collateral damage. If forces can only respond in a lethal manner, civilians and military alike are endangered, and mission failure or political fallout may result. Building on previous work led by Canada to identify non-lethal capabilities (NLC) for NATO forces, Germany is leading this initiative with a view to allowing forces to become familiar with various NLC, and promoting upcoming non-lethal technologies through exercises. The DAT POW Non-Lethal Capability Group will organise two exercises in 2015. Belgium and France are co-leading a project on standards for non-lethal weapons. In earlier work, the Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation in La Spezia, Italy contributed to this domain by exploring the behavioural effects of non-lethal weapons. 3) Network engagement This capability umbrella covers training and development to improve identification and targeting of key nodes of threat networks. Technologies and concept development for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR) and target acquisition The goal is to develop improved tools for early warning and identification of terrorists and their activities. To build on the improved intelligence/information-sharing achieved over the last decade in common operations and to capture these developments for the future, DAT POW supported Trial Unified Vision 2012 and 2014. Simulating a real-world operational environment, the trial sought to determine how well participants could analyse threat information and identify and track threats to form a cohesive intelligence picture, and how easily this could be shared. DAT POW also supports the NATO Human Intelligence (HUMINT) Centre of Excellence in Oradea, Romania, which is seeking to improve technical interoperability within the NATO HUMINT community and to analyse human aspects of the operational environment where NATO forces operate. Biometrics Biometrics data are essential to protect forces in theatre, allowing them to identify known or suspected insurgents. NATO’s Strategic Commands have recognised that developing and improving this area is a military requirement.  A NATO biometrics programme of work and action plan have been developed to cover all the areas required for a full capability (doctrine, concept, standards, equipment, etc.). The DAT POW community supports this effort. Special Operations Forces community Recognised as one of the lead entities in the fight against terrorism, Special Operations Forces (SOF) are a crucial component of the DAT POW. DAT POW supported the NATO Special Operations Headquarters (NSHQ) in training forces with a mobile laboratory permitting forensic investigation of IED incidents in theatre. DAT POW now supports the development of a database for NATO special operation counter-terrorism activities. Past activities In the past, DAT POW supported several other capability areas where there were requirements from forces in theatre.  These included Defence Against Mortar Attack (DAMA), Precision Air Drop, Protection against Rocket Propelled Grenades and Protection of Critical Infrastructure. These initiatives were closed once the short-term requirements had been satisfied.
  • Defence and security economics
    Defence and security economics Economic security is a critical dimension of NATO’s priorities with Allies and global partners. The potential disruption to the flow of economic resources comprising people, goods and strategic commodities can pose challenges and opportunities to the security of the Alliance, as underlined by NATO’s Strategic Concept – the official document that sets out NATO’s enduring purpose, nature and fundamental security tasks. A proper understanding of defence and security economics is an essential contribution to NATO’s work in pre-conflict, conflict and post-conflict environments. At present, NATO’s efforts are focused on Afghanistan, international economic security, partnerships and supporting the development and sharing of economic intelligence. Economic cooperation has always been an important aspect of the Alliance. Article 2 of the North Atlantic Treaty, clearly states that member countries “will seek to eliminate conflict in their international economic policies and will encourage economic collaboration between any or all of them.”  Economic cooperation between Allies and, over time, with partners began formally in 1957 with the establishment of the Economic Committee. The Committee conducted multi-faceted work on economic security until mid-2010, when it was dissolved and its tasks pursued within other committees. The Defence and Security Economics (DSE) section of the Political Affairs and Security Policy Division of the International Staff constitutes the core team that deals with defence and security economics on a day-to-day basis. Core tasks Afghanistan The primary work of DSE is directed to supporting NATO’s efforts in Afghanistan and to providing assessments on international economic security in a world where the balance of international economic power is changing. In this regard, DSE has developed various important initiatives in support of NATO ISAF and Afghanistan. Firstly, DSE has significantly contributed to the development of the NATO Afghan First Policy that seeks to reduce the risk of corruption in the contracting for goods and services in support of economic development and security in Afghanistan. Secondly, DSE, in partnership with international organisations and NGOs, is engaged in building the capacity of the government of Afghanistan to reduce corruption in defence and security establishments in Afghanistan. This includes the application of Building Integrity tools (a NATO initiative first developed in 2007) to support NATO ISAF in developing anti-corruption training for the Afghan National Army and the national Police. Thirdly, DSE interacts with the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank in assessing those economic and financial issues that are critical to Afghanistan’s medium- and long-term economic development and security. International economic security The challenges confronting the Alliance in the wake of the global economic recession in 2008 have been felt in the pressure imposed on national defence budgets at a time of economic and fiscal austerity. In an increasingly complex financial and economic world, international economic collaboration is a fundamental condition for stability and security, together with measures to ensure that NATO members continue to devote the necessary budgetary resources to defence and security capabilities. DSE organises workshops and interacts with other divisions within the International Staff (the Emerging Security Challenges and the Defence Policy and Planning Divisions) in focusing upon the affordability and sustainability of defence spending within the Alliance set against the backcloth of the changing distribution of international economic power. Increasingly, budgetary and financial constraints make it essential that Allies implement “Smart Defence” arrangements, as proposed and emphasised by NATO’s Secretary General, Anders Fogh Rasmussen. Partnerships In coordination with other entities within the International Staff, DSE contributes to the monitoring and assessment of the economic performance of partners in the framework of their Annual national Plans and Membership Action Plans. Additionally, discussions with partners can focus on assessing developments in economic security, as well as supporting their efforts to manage the socio-economic consequences of defence sector restructuring and downsizing (in support of vital defence reform and defence conversion) and to promote better management of scarce defence and security sector financial resources. Economic Intelligence DSE retains access to a network of defence economic experts from Allied capitals who previously contributed to the analytical work of the Economic Committee. With the reform of NATO intelligence structures and processes, DSE remains able to support this work with contributions on economic intelligence. Working mechanisms The Defence and Security Economics (DSE) section of the Political Affairs and Security Policy Division in the NATO International deals with defence and security economics.  DSE was reorganised in 2010 after the dissolution of the NATO Economic Committee and provides expert advice and inputs to the Political and Partnerships Committee and the Operations Policy Committee. It also contributes to the work conducted by other divisions in support of NATO’s operations and partnerships. The Head of DSE is also NATO’s Senior Defence Economist and is responsible for internal liaison with NATO committees, agencies and other bodies. He is also responsible for external liaison with pivotal international economic organisations such as the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and other major international economic organisations. DSE also maintains an extensive network of contacts with experts on defence and security economics in prominent international think tanks.
  • Defence Expenditures, Information on
    Information on Defence Expenditures NATO publishes an annual compendium of financial, personnel and economic data for all member countries. Since 1963, this report has formed a consistent basis of comparison of the defence effort of Alliance members based on a common definition of defence expenditure. Through the links below, you can find data covering the years from 1949 to the present. Working mechanism The figures represent payments actually made or to be made during the course of the fiscal year. They are based on the NATO definition of defence expenditure. In view of the differences between this and national definitions, the figures shown may diverge considerably from those which are quoted by national authorities or given in national budgets. Evolution Each year, updated tables with nations’ defence expenditures are published on the NATO website in PDF and Excel format.  The latest version of the compendium provides tables covering key indicators on the financial and economic aspects of NATO defence, including: Total defence expenditures Defence expenditure and GDP growth rates Defence expenditures as a percentage of GDP Defence expenditures and GDP per capita Defence expenditures by category Armed forces personnel strength Archive of tables    2010 2011 2013             2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1970 1971     1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979       1963 1964 1965   1967   1969
  • Defence Investment Division
    Defence Investment Division Equipping NATO's armed forces for the 21st Century The Defence Investement Division at NATO Headquarters provides policy, technical, financial and procedural expertise relating to armaments, air defence, airspace management and security investment. What are its tasks and responsibilities? The Division's work focuses on the development of military capabilities and oversees investment in NATO assets, thereby ensuring that forces assigned to the Alliance are properly equipped and interoperable to undertake the full range of military missions. Who participates? The Division is composed of 116 members of NATO's International Staff. It is led by the Assistant Sectretary General for Defence Investment. How does it work in practice? The work of the Division is done by three principle directorates: Armaments Air Defence and Airspace Management Security Investment Programme The Division also includes the International Staff support element for the NATO Headquarters, Consultation, Command and Control Staff. Armaments Directorate The Armaments Directorate addresses a range of defence investment priorities and supports the Conference of National Armaments Directors (CNAD), the senior NATO committee responsible for armaments co-operation, materiel standardisation and defence procurement matters. High-priority on-going work includes NATO’s Long Term Capability Requirements programme and the new Defence Against Terrorism Programme of Work. Additionally, the Directorate works in close co-operation with defence industry through the NATO Industrial Advisory Group. Air Defence and Airspace Management (ADAM) Directorate The Air Defence and Airspace Management Directorate's mission is to provide policy, technical expertise and support on all areas of Alliance air defence and air traffic management, including: assisting in the development of Alliance air defence policy and capabilities including a theatre ballistic missile defence programme; and in the development of Alliance Deployable Air Traffic Management and Airport Capabilities; overseeing cooperation with partner countries and countries from the Mediterranean Dialogue on air defence and air traffic management related topics, including the Air Situation Data Exchange Programme with Partners; supporting Alliance work related to early warning information on missile launches; ensuring the safeguard and promotion of NATO requirements in civil-military air traffic management co-ordination, in co-operation with other NATO bodies and relevant international organisations such as the EU, the European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation, the International Civil Aviation Organization, the International Air Transport Association; fostering the development and implementation of aviation security measures; supporting NATO operations through liaison with international civil aviation organisations and providing expert advice on airspace, air traffic management and airport matters; facilitating liaison between the Secretary General and relevant committees and groups. Security Investment Directorate (SID) The key objective of the Security Investment Directorate is to ensure the timely provision of Alliance common-funded capabilities in support of the operational requirements of NATO's military authorities. Funding of these capabilities is provided through the NATO Security Investment Programme. NATO Headquarters, Consultation, Command and Control Staff (NHQC3S) The mission of the NHQC3S is to identify, develop and influence policy and standards, and provide analyses, advice, products and services to our customers in order to contribute directly to the NATO alliance's cost-effective, interoperable, harmonized and secure consultation, command and control capability.
  • Defence Planning Process
    The NATO Defence Planning Process Allies undertake to provide, individually or together, the forces and capabilities needed for NATO to fulfil its security and defence objectives. The NATO Defence Planning Process (NDPP) is the primary means to identify the required capabilities and promote their timely and coherent development and acquisition by Allies. An effective defence planning process is essential to deliver the collective political, military and resource advantages expected by NATO members.  By participating in the NDPP, and without compromising their national sovereignty, Allies can harmonise their national defence plans with those of NATO to identify, develop and deliver a fair share of the overall forces and capabilities needed for the Alliance to be able to undertake its full range of missions. The NDPP is designed to influence national defence planning efforts and identifies and prioritises NATO’s future capability requirements, apportions those requirements to each Ally as targets, facilitates their implementation and regularly assesses progress.  It provides a framework for the harmonisation of national and Alliance defence planning activities aimed at the timely development and delivery of all the capabilities, military and non-military, needed to meet the agreed security and defence objectives inherent to the Strategic Concept. The Defence Policy and Planning Committee (DPPC) is responsible for the development of policy and overall coordination and direction of activities related to defence planning. The key characteristics of the NDPP are that: It is a coherent and integrated process in which Allies choose to participate, on a voluntary basis, to deliver the required capabilities in the short, medium and long term. It supports a capability-based approach but provides sufficient detail to assist participating countries and the Alliance to develop the forces necessary to undertake the full range of NATO missions. It is sufficiently flexible to respond to the needs of both individual Allies and the Alliance, informs and guides national defence plans, provides transparency, promotes multinational approaches and offers opportunities to capitalise on best practices. Efforts to enhance the NDPP, by making it more flexible and responsive, continue. The defence planning process evolves continuously; however two milestones stand out. In 2009, initiatives were taken to improve the harmonisation of the planning domains and Allies were encouraged to integrate their national defence planning activities to complement NATO efforts. Another milestone came earlier with the Alliance’s engagement in non-Article 5 operations. With collective defence war plans during the Cold War, members were expected to assign and employ the requested forces virtually without question. The non-Article 5 operations Allies have conducted since the fall of the Berlin Wall are, by agreement, on a case-by-case and the provision of national forces is discretionary. As such, the automaticity associated with force planning during the Cold War period was lost. This led to the need for “force generation conferences” to solicit the relevant forces and “operational planning” to develop the plans. Existing processes were adjusted and then reviewed on a regular basis in view of the changing security environment. NATO Defence Planning Process The NATO Defence Planning Process (NDPP) consists of five steps conducted over a period of four years. Step 1 - Establish political guidance A single, unified political guidance for defence planning sets out the overall aims and objectives to be met by the Alliance. It translates guidance from higher strategic policy documents, such as the Strategic Concept, in sufficient detail to direct the defence planning efforts of the planning domains in order to determine the capabilities required. Political guidance aims at defining the number, scale and nature of the operations the Alliance should be able to conduct in the future (commonly referred to as NATO’s Level of Ambition).  It also defines the qualitative capability requirements to support this ambition. By doing so, it steers capability development efforts within the Allies and NATO. It defines associated priorities and timelines for use by the planning domains. Political guidance is normally reviewed every four years. The most recent was published in March 2011. Step 2 - Determine requirements NATO’s capability requirements (current and future) are consolidated into a single list called the Minimum Capability Requirements.  These requirements are identified by the planning domains and the two Strategic Commands (Allied Command Operations (ACO) and Allied Command Transformation (ACT)). ACT has the lead in determining the requirements. The process is structured, comprehensive, transparent and traceable and uses analytical tools coupled with relevant NATO expert analysis. This is done once every four years, although out-of-cycle activity for particular capabilities can be undertaken as circumstances dictate. Step 3 - Apportion requirements and set targets Target setting apportions the Minimum Capability Requirements to the Allies (either individually or as part of an agreed multinational undertaking) and NATO entities in the form of target packages. The apportionment process aims to apply the principles of fair burden-sharing and reasonable challenge. The Strategic Commands (with ACT in the lead) develop a target package for each Ally for existing and future capabilities, with associated priorities and timelines.  Targets are expressed in capability terms and are flexible enough to allow innovative solutions to be developed rather than replacing ‘like with like’. Once each Ally has been consulted, the International Staff replaces the Strategic Commands in leading the process.   Target packages are forwarded to Allies with a recommendation of which targets should be retained or removed.  Allies review these packages during a series of Multilateral Examinations and agree a target package for each Ally on the basis of “consensus minus one”, meaning that a single Ally cannot veto what otherwise would be a unanimous decision on its own target package. Agreed target packages are subsequently forwarded to Allies for submission to defence ministers for adoption.  A summary report is also prepared which includes an assessment of the potential risk and possible impact caused by the removal of targets from packages on the delivery of the Alliance’s Level of Ambition. Step 4 - Facilitate implementation This step assists national measures, facilitates multinational initiatives and directs NATO efforts to satisfy agreed targets and priorities in a coherent and timely manner. Unlike other steps in the process, this step – or function - is continuous in nature. Step 5 - Review results This step seeks to examine the degree to which NATO’s political objectives, ambitions and associated targets have been met and to offer feedback and direction for the next cycle of the defence planning process. Step 5 provides an overall assessment of the degree to which the Alliance’s forces and capabilities are able to meet the political guidance, including the NATO Level of Ambition. It is carried out by a Defence Planning Capability Review which scrutinises and assesses Allies’ defence and financial plans. Every two years, Allies complete a Defence Planning Capability Survey which seeks data on Allies’ national plans and policies, including efforts (national, multinational and collective) to address their capability targets. The survey also seeks information on the national inventory of military forces and associated capabilities, any relevant non-military capabilities potentially available for Alliance operations and national financial plans. Assessments for each participating Ally are produced. They constitute a comprehensive analysis of national plans and capabilities, including force structures, specific circumstances and priorities.  These assessments also include a statement by the Strategic Commands regarding the impact each country’s plans have on the ability of ACO to conduct missions. They may also include recommendations which seek to redirect resources from areas where the Alliance has a surfeit of capability, to deficiencies areas. The assessments are submitted for examination to the Defence Policy and Planning Committee (DPPC) for review and approval during a series of multilateral examinations. In parallel with and based on the Strategic Commands’ Suitability and Risk Assessment, the Military Committee develops a Suitability and Risk Assessment. It effectively provides a risk assessment on the military suitability of the plans and the degree of military risk associated with them in relation to political guidance for defence planning. On the basis of this and the individual assessments, the DPPC prepares a NATO Capabilities Report, highlighting individual and collective progress on capability development as it relates to NATO’s Level of Ambition. Support structures The senior committee for defence planning The DPPC is the senior committee for defence planning.  It is responsible for the development of defence planning-related policy and the overall coordination and direction of NDPP activities.  The DPPC is the central body that oversees the work of the NATO bodies and committees responsible for the planning domains on behalf of the North Atlantic Council (NAC).  It can provide feedback and defence planning process-related direction to them.  The DPPC will often meet with appropriate subject-matter experts invited to “reinforce” the regular representatives.  When meeting in this format, the DPPC is referred to as the DPPC “Reinforced” or DPPC(R). Capability Development Executive Board The Capability Development Executive Board provides unity of oversight, policy, direction and guidance and enforces authority and accountability throughout NATO capability development.  It brings together the senior leadership of the relevant civil and military capability development stakeholders in the NATO staffs and acts as a steering board to direct staff efforts associated with NATO capability development in accordance with the guidance provided by Allies through the relevant committees. Defence Planning staff The work of the DPPC and CDEB is supported by relevant NATO Defence Planning staff. This staff comprises civil and military expertise resident within the various NATO HQ staffs and Strategic Commands, and supports the NDPP throughout the five steps. Planning domains and related committees NATO Defence Planning encompasses many different domains: force, resource, armaments, logistics, C3 (consultation, command and control), civil emergency, air and missile defence, air traffic management, standardization, intelligence, military medical support and science and technology. In April 2012, the integration of cyber defence into the NDPP began. Relevant cyber defence requirements are also identified and prioritised through the defence planning process. Force planning Force planning aims to promote the availability of national forces and capabilities for the full range of Alliance missions. It seeks to ensure that Allies develop modern, deployable, sustainable and interoperable forces and capabilities, which can undertake demanding operations wherever required, including being able to operate abroad with limited or no support from the country of destination.  The focus of force planning is on “capabilities” and how Allies should prioritise their resources to achieve these. Resource planning NATO resource planning focuses on the financing of capabilities that are jointly or commonly funded, where members pool resources within a NATO framework.  Resource planning is closely linked to operational planning. There is a distinction between joint funding and common funding: joint funding covers activities managed by NATO agencies, such as the NATO Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) and NATO pipelines; common funding involves three different budgets; the civil budget, the military budget, and the NATO Security Investment Programme. These budgets are relatively small, but the specific use of each is key to ensuring the cohesion of the Alliance and the integration of capabilities. The Resource Policy and Planning Board The Resource Policy and Planning Board is the senior advisory body to the North Atlantic Council (NAC) on the management of all NATO resources. It has responsibility for the overall management of NATO’s civil and military budgets, as well as the NATO Security Investment Programme and manpower. Armaments planning Armaments planning focuses on the development of multinational (but not common-funded) armaments programmes. It promotes cost-effective acquisition, cooperative development and production of armaments.  It also encourages interoperability, and technological and industrial cooperation among Allies and partners. The Conference of National Armaments Directors  The Conference of National Armaments Directors (CNAD) is the senior NATO committee responsible for Alliance armaments cooperation, material standardization and defence procurement.  It brings together the top officials responsible for defence procurement in NATO member and partner countries to consider the political, economic and technical aspects of the development and procurement of equipment for NATO forces, with the aim of arriving at common solutions. Logistics planning Logistics planning aims at ensuring responsive and usable logistics support to NATO operations. This is achieved by promoting the development of military and civil logistics capabilities and multinational logistic cooperation. The Logistics Committee The Logistics Committee is the senior advisory body on logistics at NATO. Its mandate is two-fold: to address consumer logistics matters to enhance the performance, efficiency, sustainability and combat effectiveness of Alliance forces; to exercise, on behalf of the NAC, a coordinating authority across the NATO logistics spectrum. C3 planning NATO's political and military functions require the use of NATO and national consultation, command and control (C3) systems, services and facilities, supported by personnel and NATO-agreed doctrine, organisations and procedures. C3 systems include communications, information, navigation and identification systems as well as sensor and warning installation systems.  They are designed and operated in a networked and integrated form to meet the needs of NATO.  Individual C3 systems may be provided by NATO via common-funded programmes or by Allies via national, multinational or joint-funded cooperative programmes. There is no established C3 planning cycle which allows C3 planning to be responsive.  However, activities are harmonised with the cycles of the other associated planning disciplines. The Consultation, Command and Control (C3) Board The Consultation, Command and Control Board is a senior multinational body acting on behalf of and responsible to the NAC on all matters relating to NATO C3 issues.  This includes interoperability of NATO and national C3 systems, and advising the CNAD on C3 cooperative programs. Civil emergency planning Civil emergency planning aims to collect, analyse and share information on national planning activity to ensure the most effective use of civil resources for use during emergency situations, in accordance with Alliance objectives.  It enables Allies and partners to assist each other in preparing for and dealing with the consequences of crisis, disaster or conflict. The Civil Emergency Planning Committee The Civil Emergency Planning Committee is the top advisory body for the protection of civilian populations and the use of civil resources in support of NATO’s objectives. Air and missile defence planning Air and missile defence planning enables members to harmonise national efforts with international planning related to air command and control and air and missile defence weapons. The NATO Integrated Air and Missile Defence System (NATINAMDS) comprises sensors, command and control facilities and weapons systems, such as surface-based air defence and fighter aircraft.  It is a cornerstone of NATO’s air and missile defence policy, and a visible indication of cohesion, shared responsibility and solidarity across the Alliance.  A NATO Active Layered Theatre Ballistic Missile Defence (ALTBMD) programme has been initiated to enhance the previous NATO Integrated Air and Missile Defence (NATINAD) system, particularly against theatre ballistic missiles.   The Air and Missile Defence Committee It is the senior multinational policy advisory and coordinating body regarding all elements of NATO’s integrated air and missile defence and relevant air power aspects in a joint approach.  It advises the NAC and the relevant Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council bodies on all elements of air defence, including missile defence and relevant air power aspects. It promotes harmonisation of national efforts with international planning related to air command and control and air defence weapons. It reports directly to the NAC and is supported by its Panel on Air and Missile Defence. The Military Committee Working Group (Air Defence) is responsible for reviewing, advising and making recommendations to the Military Committee on air and missile defence issues. Other groups dealing with air and missile defence-related issues include the DPPC(R) with particular responsibilities on ballistic missile defence, the Missile Defence Project Group, which oversees the BMD Programme Office, and the NATO-Russia Council Missile Defence Working Group. Air traffic management NATO's role in civil-military air traffic management is to ensure, in cooperation with other international organisations, the following: safe access to airspace, effective delivery of services and civil-military interoperability for air operations conducted in support of the Alliance's security tasks and missions.  The aim is to achieve these objectives while minimising disruption to civil aviation, already constrained by the limited capacity of systems and airports, and mitigating the cost implications of new civil technologies on defence budgets.  The Air Traffic Management Committee This committee is the senior civil-military advisory body to the NAC for airspace use and air traffic management. Its mission is to develop, represent and promote NATO’s view on matters related to safe and expeditious air operations in the airspace of NATO areas of responsibility and interest. Standardization At NATO, standardization is the process of developing shared concepts, doctrines, procedures and designs to achieve and maintain the most effective levels of “compatibility, interchangeability and commonality” in operations, procedures, materials, technology and administration.  The primary products of this process are Standardization Agreements (STANAGS) between member countries. The Committee for Standardization The Committee for Standardization is the senior authority of the Alliance responsible for providing coordinated advice to the NAC on overall standardization issues. Intelligence Intelligence plays an important role in the defence planning process, especially with the emergence of multidirectional and multidimensional security challenges such as terrorism and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. The Intelligence Steering Board The Intelligence Steering Board acts as an inter-service coordination body responsible for steering intelligence activities and for providing effective support to the decision-making process at NATO Headquarters.  It is tasked, among others, with developing the Strategic Intelligence Requirements from which any capability requirements are derived. The Civilian Intelligence Committee It is the sole body that handles civilian intelligence issues at NATO.  It reports directly to the NAC and advises it on matters of espionage and terrorist or related threats, which may affect the Alliance. The Military Intelligence Committee It is responsible for developing a work plan in particular in the areas of NATO intelligence support to operations and oversight of policy guidance on military intelligence. Military medical support Military medical support is normally a national responsibility; however planning needs to be flexible to consider multinational approaches. The degree of multi-nationality varies according to the circumstances of the mission and the participation of Allies. The Committee of the Chiefs of Military Medical Services in NATO The Committee of the Chiefs of Military Medical Services in NATO is composed of the senior military medical authorities of member countries. It acts as the central point for the development and coordination of military medical matters and for providing medical advice to the Military Committee. Science and technology NATO promotes and conducts cooperative research and information exchange to support the effective use of national defence science and technology and further the military needs of the Alliance. The NATO Science and Technology Organization The NATO Science and Technology Organization (STO) acts as NATO’s principal organisation for science and technology research. It is composed of a Science and Technology Board, Scientific and Technical Committees and three Executive Bodies (the Office of the Chief Scientist, the Collaboration Support Office, and the Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation). The STO was created through the amalgamation of the Research and Technology Organization and the NATO Undersea Research Centre.  These bodies were brought together following a decision at the 2010 Lisbon Summit to reform the NATO agency structure.
  • Defence Policy and Planning Committee
    Defence Policy and Planning Committee The Defence Policy and Planning Committee (DPPC) is the senior advisory body to the North Atlantic Council on defence matters concerning all member countries and it also has the lead on defence aspects of Partnership. It is a key committee bringing together defence counsellors from all national delegations.  It deals with a broad range of issues such as transformation, defence capabilities, agency reform, common-funded acquisition and missile defence, and in Reinforced format (DPPC(R)) it manages the NATO Defence Planning Process. Chairmanship is flexible depending on the topics being discussed, but the DPPC’s permanent Chairman is the Assistant Secretary General for Defence Policy and Planning; in Reinforced format  it is chaired by the Deputy Secretary General of NATO. The deputy chairman is the Deputy Assistant Secretary General of the Defence Policy and Planning Division. This committee has been called the DPPC since the June 2010 committee reform. It replaced both the Executive Working Group and the Defence Review Committee. It has no subordinate committees under its remit.
  • Defense College, NATO
    NATO Defense College The NATO Defense College in Rome offers strategic-level courses on politico-military issues designed to prepare selected personnel for NATO and NATO-related appointments. The College also provides senior NATO officials with fresh perspectives on issues relevant to the Alliance by drawing on the ideas of top academics, experts and practitioners, and through reports from conferences and workshops that focus on the major issues challenging the Alliance. Virtually all of the College’s activities are open to participants from the Partnership for Peace and Mediterranean Dialogue countries, and they may also include participants from countries in the broader Middle East region in the framework of the Istanbul Cooperation Initiative. The College was established in Paris in 1951 and was transferred to Rome in 1966. Core objectives and activities The organization of the College The evolution of the College Core objectives and activities The College’s mission is to contribute to the effectiveness and cohesion of the Alliance by developing its role as a major centre of education, study and research on transatlantic security issues. The main educational activity of the College is the Senior Course, which is attended by up to 90 course members selected by their own governments on a national quota basis. These members are either military officers holding the rank of colonel or lieutenant colonel, or civilian officials of equivalent status from relevant government departments or national institutions. In line with guidance issued to the College by the North Atlantic Council and NATOs Military Committee in 2002, the College focuses its efforts on three core areas: education, outreach and research. Education Most course members go on to staff appointments in NATO commands or national NATO-related posts in their own countries. Great importance is attached to the achievement of consensus among the course members during their preparatory work and discussions, reflecting the importance of the principle of consensus throughout NATO structures. Also, the College has a non-attribution rule that allows students to speak their minds freely, knowing that their views will not be repeated outside the confines of the College “family”. Parts of the Senior Course are designed to be taken as modular short courses which allow selected officers and officials from NATO Headquarters and from the strategic commands to join the Senior Course for one week to study a particular strategic theme. In addtion to the courses, daily lectures are given by visiting academics, politicians, high-ranking military and civil servants. Outreach In 1991, the College introduced a two-week course for senior officers and civilians from the members of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, now the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE). The following year, the course became an Integrated Partnership for Peace (PfP)/OSCE Course within the framework of the Senior Course. As an integral part of NATO’s PfP programme, this two-week course aims to develop a common perception of the Euro-Atlantic region among the college’s regular Senior Course members and representatives from PfP/OSCE and NATO’s Mediterranean Dialogue countries. Research The College has significantly upgraded its work in the field of research. It aims to provide senior NATO officials with fresh perspectives, drawing on the ideas of top academics, experts and practitioners, through reports based on conferences and workshops that focus on the major issues challenging the Alliance. In addition, the College organizes an International Research Seminar on Euro-Atlantic Security every year, in cooperation with an academic institution from one of the PfP countries. A similar International Research Seminar with Mediterranean Dialogue Countries also takes place annually. Each year the College offers research fellowships in the field of security studies to two nationals from PfP countries and two from Mediterranean Dialogue countries. This programme aims to promote individual scholarly research on topics relating to Euro-Atlantic, Eurasian and Mediterranean security issues. The organization of the College The College comes under the direction of the Military Committee, which appoints the commandant of the College for a period of three years. The commandant is an officer of at least lieutenant general rank or equivalent. He is assisted by a civilian dean and a military director of management provided by the host country. The Chairman of the Military Committee chairs the College’s Academic Advisory Board. The College faculty is composed of military officers and civilian officials, normally from the foreign and defence ministries of NATO member countries. The evolution of the College In 1951, US General Dwight D. Eisenhower, NATO’s first Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR), first perceived the need to identify officers and officials in the then embryonic NATO who were capable of adapting themselves to the new security environment in Europe. On 25 April 1951, he wrote: "...There is a high priority requirement to develop individuals, both on the military and civilian side, who will have a thorough grasp of the many complicated factors which are involved in the problem of creating an adequate defense posture for the North Atlantic Treaty area. The venture upon which we are now embarked is so new to all of us, and the problems which it raises are on such a different scale from those which have hitherto confronted the member nations, that we are continually faced with a necessity for exploring new approaches and for broadening our points of view. This means we must constantly be on the lookout for individuals who are capable of adapting themselves to this new environment and who find it possible, in a reasonably short time, to broaden their outlook and to grasp the essentials of this challenging problem sufficiently to shoulder the responsibilities inherent in this new field." His vision was translated into the founding of the NATO Defense College in Paris, and Course Number 1 was inaugurated on 19 November 1951. The College quickly made a name for itself as an establishment where NATO's senior officials learnt how to operate effectively in high-level, multinational staffs. Move to Rome The College continued in Paris until 1966, when President Charles de Gaulle decided that France would withdraw from NATO's integrated military structure and the College was required to move. Italy offered temporary accommodation in an office block in the EUR area of Rome. These premises served the College for more than 30 years. In the 1990s it became increasingly clear that a new building was required: one that would be in keeping with the standing the College had acquired within NATO and the international academic world. Italy offered to provide such premises and work began on the construction of a purpose-built College in the Military City of Cecchignola. The College moved in during the summer of 1999 and the inauguration of the new facilities took place on 10 September. Over the years, some 7,000 senior officers, diplomats, and officials have passed through the College in preparation for working on Alliance-related issues.
  • Delegations to NATO, National -
    National delegations to NATO Each NATO member country has a delegation at NATO Headquarters in Brussels, Belgium. The delegation has a status similar to that of an embassy. It is headed by an “ambassador” or “permanent representative”, who acts on instructions from his or her capital and reports back to the national authorities. With all the delegations in the same building, they are able to maintain formal and informal contacts with each other, as well as with NATO's International Staff, International Military Staff and representatives of Partner countries, each of which are entitled to have a mission at NATO Headquarters. Effectively, a delegation’s function is two-fold: to represent its country’s government and contribute to the consultation process, which allows NATO to take collective decisions or actions. Delegations can vary in size and are principally staffed with civil servants from the ministries of foreign affairs and defence. Roles and responsibilities Representing its member country The responsibility and task of each delegation is to represent its member country at NATO. The authority of each delegation comes from its home country's government. It acts on instruction from its capital and reports back on NATO decisions and projects. Each member country is represented on every NATO committee, at every level. At the top, each member country is represented on the North Atlantic Council, the principal political decision-making body within NATO, by an ambassador. The ambassadors are supported by their national delegation, composed of advisers and officials who represent their country on different NATO committees, subordinate to the North Atlantic Council. Delegations can also be supported by experts from capitals on certain matters. Contributing to the consultation process An important function of the delegations at NATO Headquarters is to contribute to the consultation process. Consultation among the delegations can take place in many forms, from the exchange of information and opinions to the communication of actions or decisions which governments have already taken or may be about to take and which have a direct or indirect bearing on the interests of their allies. Consultation is ultimately designed to enable member countries to arrive at mutually acceptable agreements on collective decisions or on action by the Alliance as a whole. The participants The delegation is headed by an ambassador, who is appointed by his/ her government for a period ranging between one to eight years. The staff of the delegation varies in size from about six (Iceland) to 200 (United States). It comprises civil servants from the ministries of foreign affairs, the ministry of defence and other relevant ministries. The International Staff and International Military Staff at NATO Headquarters support the work of the delegations. As set out in the "Agreement on the Status of NATO, National Representatives and International Staff" (signed at Ottawa in 1951), all members of national delegations shall enjoy the same immunities and privileges as diplomatic representatives. These include: immunity from personal arrest or detention; immunity from legal process in respect of words spoken or written or acts done in an official capacity; and inviolability for all papers and documents. A full list of privileges and immunities can be found in Article XIII of the agreement.
  • Deputies Committee (DPRC)
    Deputies Committee The Deputies Committee (DPRC) deals with cross-cutting issues ranging from strategic and political oversight of areas, such as HR policy and the new Headquarters, to committee reform, as well as acting as “trouble-shooting committee” for those issues on which no consensus can be achieved in the competent committee. The DPRC reports directly to the North Atlantic Council. As its name indicates, it is composed of the Deputy Permanent Representatives of each member country and is chaired, according to the topic under discussion, by the Assistant Secretary General of the relevant IS Division or his/her Deputy. The Deputies Committee is supported by the Political Affairs and Security Policy Division, which has overall coordinating responsibility of its activities. It was created in 2010 in the framework of the NATO Committee Review, as a successor to the Senior Political Committee.
  • Disarmament, arms control and non-proliferation in NATO
    Arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation in NATO NATO has a long-standing commitment to an active policy in arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation. The Alliance continues to pursue its security objectives through these policies, while at the same time ensuring that its collective defence obligations are met and the full range of its missions fulfilled. Allies participate actively in international arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation treaties and agreements. NATO itself does not belong to any treaty as an entity but it continues to encourage its members, partners and other countries to implement their international obligations fully. NATO’s policies in these fields cover consultation and practical cooperation in a wide range of areas. These include conventional arms control; nuclear policy issues; promoting mine action and combating the spread of small arms and light weapons (SALW), munitions and man-portable air defence systems (MANPADS); preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and developing and harmonising capabilities to defend against chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) threats. Arms control and disarmament are key elements of the Euro-Atlantic security architecture. Over the past two decades, Allies have significantly contributed to more stable international relations at lower levels of military forces and armaments, through effective and verifiable arms control agreements. At the Bucharest Summit in 2008, Allied leaders took note of a report on raising NATO’s profile in the fields of arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation. As part of a broader response to security issues, they agreed that NATO should continue to contribute to international efforts in these fields and keep these issues under active review. Subsequently these commitments were reaffirmed in the Strasbourg/Kehl Declaration in 2009 and the Lisbon Declaration in 2010. Definitions While often used together, the terms arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation do not mean the same thing. In fact, experts usually consider them to reflect associated, but different areas in the same discipline or subject. Arms control Arms control is the broadest of the three terms and generally refers to mutually agreed upon restraints or controls (usually between states) on the research, manufacture, or the levels of and/or locales of deployment of troops and weapons systems. Disarmament Disarmament, often inaccurately used as a synonym for arms control, refers to the act of eliminating or abolishing weapons (particularly offensive arms) either unilaterally (in the hope that one’s example will be followed) or reciprocally. Non-proliferation For the Alliance, “non-proliferation refers to all efforts to prevent proliferation from occurring, or should it occur, to reverse it by any other means than the use of military force.” 1  Non-proliferation usually applies to weapons of mass destruction (WMD), which the Alliance defines as a weapon that is "capable of a high order of destruction and of being used in such a manner as to destroy people, infrastructure or other resources on a large scale." WMD proliferation Attempts made by state or non-state actors to develop, acquire, manufacture, possess, transport, transfer or use nuclear, chemical or biological weapons or devices and their means of delivery or related material, including precursors, without prejudice to the rights and obligations of the States Parties to the following agreements: the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction (CWC) and the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction (BTWC). 1. According to NATO’s Comprehensive, Strategic-Level Policy for Preventing the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) and Defending Against Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Threats.. The ways in which NATO effectively participates NATO contributes to arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation in many ways: through its policies, its activities and through its member countries. Conventional forces Allies have reduced their conventional forces significantly from Cold War levels. Allies remain committed to the regime of the Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) Treaty.  As a response to Russia`s unilateral “suspension” of its Treaty obligations in 2007, NATO CFE Allies have ceased implementing certain Treaty obligations vis-à-vis Russia in November 2011, while still continuing to implement fully their obligations with respect to all other CFE states parties. Allies stated that these decisions are fully reversible should Russia return to full implementation. At the Chicago Summit in May 2012, Allies reiterated their commitment to conventional arms control and expressed their determination to preserve, strengthen and modernise the conventional arms control regime in Europe, based on key principles and commitments. Nuclear forces NATO is committed to the goal of creating the conditions for a world without nuclear weapons – but reconfirms that, as long as there are nuclear weapons in the world, NATO will remain a nuclear Alliance. However, it will do so at the lowest possible level and with an appropriate mix of nuclear and conventional forces. The nuclear weapons committed to NATO have been reduced by more than 95 per cent since the height of the Cold War. NATO nuclear weapon states have also reduced their nuclear arsenals and ceased production of highly enriched uranium or plutonium for nuclear weapons. All Allies are parties to the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) and view it as an essential foundation for international peace and security. Armed forces Through its cooperation framework with non-member countries, the Alliance supports defence and security sector reform, emphasising civilian control of the military, accountability, and restructuring of military forces to lower, affordable and usable levels. Small arms and light weapons (SALW), and mine action Allies are working with non-member countries and other international organisations to support the full implementation of the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in SALW in All its Aspects. NATO also supports mine action activities. All NATO member countries, with the exception of the United States, are party to the 1997 Mine Ban Treaty, often referred to as the Ottawa Convention. NATO’s Partnership for Peace (PfP) Trust Fund Policy was initiated in 2000 to assist countries in fulfilling their Ottawa Convention obligations to dispose of stockpiles of anti-personnel landmines. The policy was later expanded to include efforts to implement the UN Programme of Action on SALW. More recently, the Trust Fund Policy has also been expanded to include projects addressing the consequences of defence reform. NATO/Partnership Trust Funds may be initiated by a NATO member or partner country to tackle specific, practical issues linked to these areas. They are funded by voluntary contributions from individual NATO Allies, partners, contact countries and organisations. Weapons of mass destruction (WMD) “With due respect to the primarily military mission of the Alliance, NATO will work actively to prevent the proliferation of WMD by State and non-State actors, to protect the Alliance from WMD threats should prevention fail, and be prepared for recovery efforts should the Alliance suffer a WMD attack or CBRN event, within its competencies and whenever it can bring added value, through a comprehensive political, military and civilian appoach.” 2 NATO stepped up its activities in this area in 1999 with the launch of the WMD Initiative and the establishment of a WMD Centre at NATO Headquarters the following year. NATO Allies have also taken a comprehensive set of practical initiatives to defend their populations, territory and forces against potential WMD threats. As part of NATO’s outreach to Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) partners, Mediterranean Dialogue countries, Istanbul Cooperation Initiative countries and other partner countries, the NATO Conference on Arms Control, Disarmament and Non-Proliferation is the only annual conference, sponsored by an international organisation, dealing with all types and aspects of weapons of mass destruction. Of particular importance is NATO’s outreach to and cooperation with the United Nations (UN), the European Union (EU), other regional organisations and multilateral initiatives that address WMD proliferation. 2. NATO’s Comprehensive, Strategic-Level Policy for Preventing the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) and Defending Against Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Threats, Para 4. The evolution of NATO’s contribution to arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation Active policies in arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation have been an inseparable part of NATO’s contribution to security and stability since the Harmel Report of 1967. The Harmel Report This report formed the basis for NATO’s security policy. It outlined two objectives: maintaining a sufficient military capacity to act as an effective and credible deterrent against aggression and other forms of pressure while seeking to improve the East-West relations. The Alliance’s objectives in arms control have been tied to the achievement of both aims. It is therefore important that defence and arms control policies remain in harmony and are mutually reinforcing. The Comprehensive Concept of Arms Control and Disarmament In May 1989, NATO adopted a Comprehensive Concept of Arms Control and Disarmament, which allowed the Alliance to move forward in the sphere of arms control. It addressed the role of arms control in East-West relations, the principles of Alliance security and a number of guiding principles and objectives governing Allied policy in the nuclear, conventional and chemical fields of arms control. It clearly set out the interrelationships between arms control and defence policies and established the overall conceptual framework within which the Alliance sought progress in each area of its arms control agenda. The Alliance’s Strategic Concept NATO’s continued adherence to this policy was reaffirmed in the 2010 Strategic Concept (with regard to nuclear weapons): “It [This Strategic Concept] commits NATO to the goal of creating the conditions for a world without nuclear weapons – but reconfirms that, as long as there are nuclear weapons in the world, NATO will remain a nuclear Alliance.” The Strategic Concept, adopted at the Lisbon Summit in November 2010 continues, on a more general note: “NATO seeks its security at the lowest possible level of forces. Arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation contribute to peace, security and stability, and should ensure undiminished security for all Alliance members. We will continue to play our part in reinforcing arms control and in promoting disarmament of both conventional weapons and weapons of mass destruction, as well as non-proliferation efforts”. Defence and Deterrence Posture Review The NATO Defence and Deterrence Posture Review (DDPR), agreed at the Chicago Summit in 2012, addresses issues of arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation. The DDPR document underscores: “The Alliance is resolved to seek a safer world for all and to create the conditions for a world without nuclear weapons in accordance with the goals of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, in a way that promotes international stability, and is based on the principle of undiminished security for all. “ It also repeats that as long as nuclear weapons exist, NATO will remain a nuclear Alliance. The Special Advisory and Consultative Arms Control, Disarmament and Non-Proliferation Committee (ADNC) was established on the basis of DDPR agreement. Summit declarations Allied leaders have reiterated this commitment in declarations made at previous summit meetings held in Washington (1999), Istanbul (2004), Riga (2006), Bucharest (2008), Strasbourg-Kehl (2009), Lisbon (2010), and Chicago (2012).  At the Strasbourg-Kehl Summit NATO Heads of State and Government endorsed NATO’s Comprehensive, Strategic-Level Policy for Preventing the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) and Defending Against Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Threats. The subject of arms control is also embedded in the 1997 NATO-Russia Founding Act and in the declaration made by Allied and Russian leaders at the 2002 Rome Summit, which set up the NATO-Russia Council. NATO bodies dealing with these issues A number of NATO bodies oversee different aspects of Alliance activities in the fields of arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation. Overall political guidance is provided by the North Atlantic Council, NATO’s highest political decision-making body. More detailed oversight of activities and policy in specific areas is provided by a number of bodies, including the High Level Task Force (HLTF) on Conventional Arms Control, the Special Advisory and Consultative Arms Control, Disarmament and Non-Proliferation Committee (ADNC), the Nuclear Planning Group High Level Group (NPG/HLG), the Verification Coordinating Committee (VCC), the Committee on Proliferation (CP) in politico-military as well as in defence format. Within NATO’s cooperative frameworks, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (in particular, the Ad Hoc Working Group on Small Arms and Light Weapons and Mine Action) and the NATO-Russia Council (in particular, the Arms Control, Disarmament, Non-Proliferation (ADN) format) have central roles. (Note: work in the NATO-Russia Council is suspended.)