NATO and Afghanistan

  • Last updated: 07 May. 2015 09:58

NATO took command of the United Nations-mandated International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan in August 2003. Its mission was to enable the Afghan authorities to provide effective security across the country and ensure that it would never again be a safe haven for terrorists. ISAF helped build the capacity of the Afghan national security forces. As these forces grew stronger, in agreement with the Afghan authorities, they gradually took responsibility for security across the country, and ISAF’s mission was completed at the end of 2014. However, support for the continued development of the Afghan security forces and institutions, and wider cooperation with Afghanistan continue.

NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg visits  the Afghan National Army Special Operations Command at Camp Morehead in Kabul

 

Highlights

  • NATO’s primary goal in Afghanistan is to enable the national authorities to provide effective security across the country and ensure it can never again be a safe haven for terrorists.
  • From August 2003 to December 2014, NATO led the UN-mandated International Security Assistance Force (ISAF), which conducted security operations and helped build up the Afghan security forces.
  • ISAF has been NATO’s longest and most challenging mission to date: at its height, the force was more than 130,000 strong with troops from 51 NATO and partner nations.
  • The transition to Afghan lead for security started in 2011 and was completed in December 2014, when the ISAF operation ended and the Afghans assumed full responsibility for security.
  • In January 2015, NATO launched the new non-combat Resolute Support Mission to train, advise and assist Afghan security forces and institutions.
  • NATO and its partners are committed to provide financial support to sustain the Afghan forces until the end of 2017.
  • Practical cooperation in areas of mutual interests and political consultations will be strengthened through an enhanced NATO-Afghanistan Enduring Partnership, following the Declaration on an Enduring Partnership signed at the 2010 NATO Summit in Lisbon.
  • NATO’s Senior Civilian Representative represents the political leadership of the Alliance in Kabul, liaising with the government, civil society, representatives of the international community and neighbouring countries.

More background information

  • Wales Summit commitments to Afghanistan

    At the NATO Summit in Wales in September 2014, ISAF troop-contributing nations highlighted the progress made in Afghanistan during the period of ISAF’s deployment. They also underlined their commitment to continue to support the country after the end of ISAF’s mission in December 2014.

    ISAF helped create a secure environment for improving governance and socio-economic development, which are important conditions for sustainable stability. Afghanistan has made the largest percentage gain of any country in basic health and development indicators over the past decade. Maternal mortality is going down and life expectancy is rising. There is a vibrant media scene. Millions of people have exercised their right to vote in five election cycles since 2004, most recently in the 2014 presidential and provincial council elections, which resulted in the establishment of a National Unity Government.

    Afghanistan’s security is now fully in the hands of the country’s 352,000 soldiers and police, which ISAF helped train over the past years. However, while the Afghan security forces have made a lot of progress, they still need international support as they continue to develop. This support is being taken forward through three parallel, mutually reinforcing strands of activity:

    • In the short term, a new NATO-led non-combat mission, Resolute Support, is providing further training, advice and assistance to the Afghan National Defence and Security Forces (ANDSF).
    • In the medium term, continued financial support is being provided to sustain the ANDSF until the end of 2017.
    • In the long term, political consultations and practical cooperation in specific areas will be strengthened within the framework of the NATO-Afghanistan Enduring Partnership, signed in 2010.
  • Resolute Support Mission

    Resolute Support Mission

    At NATO’s Summit in Chicago in 2012, Allies and partners jointly agreed with the Afghan government to a follow-on NATO-led non-combat mission to continue supporting the development of the Afghan security forces after the end of ISAF’s mission. This commitment was reaffirmed at the Wales Summit in 2014.

    Launched on 1 January 2015, the Resolute Support Mission will provide training, advice and assistance activities at the security ministries and national institutional levels and the higher levels of army and police command across the country. It will have approximately 12,000 personnel from NATO Allies and partner countries, operating in one hub (Kabul/Bagram) and four spokes (Mazar-e Sharif in the north, Herat in the west, Kandahar in the south, and Laghman in the east).

    The agreement between NATO and Afghanistan on the establishment of the new mission was welcomed by United Nations (UN) Security Council Resolution 2189. Unanimously adopted on 12 December 2014, it underscores the importance of continued international support for the stability of Afghanistan. (More on Resolute Support)

  • Financial sustainment of the Afghan National Defence and Security Forces

    At the Wales Summit Allied leaders and their international partners renewed the pledge made earlier at the Chicago Summit to play their part in the financial sustainment of the ANDSF after 2014. The responsibility to contribute to the financing of this effort is one for the international community as a whole.

    NATO has participated in that process, by supporting development of transparent, accountable and cost-effective international funding mechanisms and expenditure arrangements for all strands of the ANDSF.

    To date, Allies and partners have confirmed funding pledges of around US$450 million per year to the NATO-Afghan National Army (ANA) Trust Fund until the end of 2017. The United States is providing approximately US$4 billion of financial assistance to the ANDSF for the year 2015, on a bilateral basis. The Afghan government itself is also expected to provide at least US$500 million per year for the sustainment of the ANDSF. The aim, agreed at the 2012 Chicago Summit, is for Afghanistan to assume full financial responsibility for its own security forces no later than 2024. (More on the ANA Trust Fund)

  • Building the capacity of Afghan forces

    Developing professional, capable and self-sustaining Afghan National Security Forces was at the centre of ISAF’s efforts and the core mission of the NATO Training Mission in Afghanistan (NTM-A). This work was carried out in close cooperation with the European Union Police Mission in Afghanistan (EUPOL Afghanistan) and the Afghan Ministry of Defence. The NTM-A, which was set up in 2009, focused on training initial recruits and building the institutional training capability of the Afghan security forces, while the ISAF Joint Command was responsible for developing fielded units through advice and assistance. These combined efforts helped build up the Afghan security forces from scratch to approximately 352,000 soldiers and police officers (including the Afghan Local Police).

    Since its creation in 2002, the Afghan National Army (ANA) has incrementally progressed from an infantry-centric force to an army, developing both fighting elements and enabling capabilities – such as military police, intelligence, route clearance, combat support, medical, aviation, and logistics. By December 2014, the ANA numbered more than 175,800.

    The role of the Afghan National Police (ANP) has gradually shifted from countering the insurgency to a more civilian policing role, by further developing capabilities ranging from criminal investigations to traffic control. By end 2014, the ANP had reached a strength of more than 153,000.

    The Afghan Air Force had steadily increased its personnel to more than 6,900 by end 2014, including aircrew and maintenance and support personnel, and its fleet of fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft.

    Developing self-sustaining Afghan security forces continues to be priority and is an ongoing endeavour. That is why the Alliance remains committed to supporting Afghanistan following the end of ISAF’s mission.

  • NATO’s Enduring Partnership with Afghanistan

    NATO and Afghanistan signed a Declaration on Enduring Partnership at the 2010 NATO Summit in Lisbon. The document provides a framework for long-term political consultations and practical cooperation in areas of specific interest for Afghanistan where NATO can bring its expertise. 

    The initial set of Enduring Partnership activities, agreed by foreign ministers in April 2011, brings together a number of previously separate initiatives. The Enduring Partnership will contribute to NATO’s evolving mission and the sustained development of Afghan institutions.

    Cooperation within this framework currently includes:

    • capacity-building efforts, such as NATO’s Building Integrity (BI) programme, which is helping to provide Afghanistan with practical tools to strengthen integrity, transparency and accountability and reduce the risk of corruption in defence and security sectors;
    • professional military education programmes, such as the Defence Education Enhancement Programme (DEEP);
    • assisting in the process of further normalisation of the Afghan civil aviation sector;
    • the SILK-Afghanistan project which provides affordable, high-speed Internet access via satellite and fibre optics to Afghan universities across the country and governmental institutions in Kabul;
    • training in civil emergency planning and disaster preparedness;
    • public diplomacy efforts to promote a better understanding of NATO and its role in Afghanistan.
  • ISAF’s mission (2001 – 2014)

    Deployed in 2001 – initially under the lead of individual NATO Allies on a six-month rotational basis – ISAF was tasked, on the request of the Afghan government and under a UN mandate, to assist the Afghan government in maintaining security, originally in and around Kabul exclusively. NATO agreed to take command of the force in August 2003 and the UN Security Council subsequently mandated the gradual expansion of ISAF’s operations to cover the whole country.

    ISAF was one of the largest coalitions in history. It is NATO’s longest and most challenging mission to date. At its height, the force was more than 130,000 strong with troops from 51 NATO and partner nations.

    As part of the international community’s overall effort, ISAF worked to create the conditions whereby the Afghan government was able to exercise its authority throughout the country, including the development of professional and capable Afghan security forces.

    A gradual process of transition to full Afghan security responsibility – known as “Inteqal” in Dari and Pashtu – was launched in 2011. This process was completed on schedule in December 2014, when ISAF’s mission ended and the Afghan forces assumed full security responsibility.

    (More on ISAF’s mission)

  • A collective international effort

    NATO’s continued commitment to Afghanistan after 2014 remains part of a collective effort by the international community. At the July 2012 Tokyo Conference on Afghanistan (Tokyo Declaration), the broader international community and the Afghan government laid the groundwork for the sustainable development of Afghanistan, taking into account the situation after 2014. At the conference, the Afghan government also made clear commitments to making progress in a number of areas, including: to hold inclusive, transparent and credible elections; to fight corruption and improve good governance; to uphold the constitution, especially human rights; and to enforce the rule of law (Tokyo Annex on mutual accountability).

    Addressing Afghanistan’s challenges requires a comprehensive approach, involving civilian and military actors, aimed not only at providing security but also at promoting good governance, the rule of law and long-term development. The Alliance acts in a supporting role to the Afghan government and works in close coordination with other international partners, including the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA), the World Bank, the European Union and the development community.

    From the start of NATO’s engagement in international efforts to help secure Afghanistan’s future, the Alliance has also worked closely with many non-member countries. ISAF troop contributors included partners from as far afield as Australia and Latin America, representing almost a quarter of UN member countries, underlining the broad international support for ISAF’s mission. Australia, Georgia and Jordan were among the top non-NATO troop-contributing nations to ISAF. Beyond troop contributors, many partners supported ISAF’s mission and the international community’s objectives in Afghanistan in other ways, such as through over-flight and transit rights, or through financial support for building the capacity of Afghan security forces and for development projects.

    Partner support continues for the new Resolute Support Mission. As of January 2015, 14 partner countries have agreed to contribute forces to help train, assist and advise the Afghan security forces.

  • Milestones in relations between NATO and Afghanistan

    SEPTEMBER 2001 – JULY 2003
    9/11 AND THE FALL OF THE TALIBAN: THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY GETS ENGAGED

    11 September 2001: A series of four coordinated terrorist attacks are launched on several targets in the United States, killing almost 3,000 people.

    12 September 2001: NATO Allies and partner countries condemn the attacks, offering their support to the United States. The Allies decide to invoke Article 5 of the Washington Treaty – the Alliance's collective defence clause – for the first time in NATO's history, if it is determined that the attack had been directed from abroad against the United States.

    2 October 2001: The North Atlantic Council is briefed by a high-level US official on results of investigations into the 9/11 attacks and determines that the attacks would be regarded as an action covered by Article 5.

    7 October 2001: Following the Taliban's refusal to hand over Osama Bin Laden and close down terrorist training camps, the United States launches airstrikes against Al-Qaeda and Taliban targets in Afghanistan with the support of allies. Ground forces are deployed two weeks later. This marks the start of Operation Enduring Freedom, which is supported by a coalition of allies.

    13 November 2001: Taliban forces abandon Kabul, which is taken over by forces of the Northern Alliance.

    14 November 2001: UN Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1378 calls for a central role for the UN in establishing a transitional administration and invites member states to send peacekeepers to Afghanistan.

    5 December 2001: At a UN-sponsored conference in Bonn, delegates of Afghan factions appoint Hamid Karzai as head of an interim government. They also sign the Bonn Agreement, which provides for an international peacekeeping force to maintain security in Afghanistan.

    20 December 2001: UN Security Council Resolution 1386 authorises the deployment of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in and around Kabul to help stabilise Afghanistan and create the conditions for self-sustaining peace.

    22 December 2001: At a ceremony in Kabul, Hamid Karzai is sworn in as head of the interim government of Afghanistan.

    January 2002: The first contingent of ISAF peacekeepers arrive in Afghanistan, deployed under Chapter VII of the UN Charter (Action with Respect to Threats to the Peace, Breaches of the Peace and Acts of Aggression). The United Kingdom takes on the first six-month rotation of the command of ISAF; 18 other countries deploy forces and assets.

    28 March 2002: The United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) is established at the request of the interim government of Afghanistan to assist it and the people of Afghanistan in laying the foundations for sustainable peace and development in the country.

    June 2002: The Loya Jirga, an assembly of Afghan tribal leaders, elects Hamid Karzai as interim head of state to serve until elections in 2004.

    20 June 2002: Turkey takes on the second rotation of the command of ISAF, on the basis of UN Security Council Resolution 1413.

    November 2002: The US military starts setting up Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRTs) in Afghanistan – first in Gardez, then Bamiyan, Kunduz, Mazar-e-Sharif, Kandahar and Herat – to coordinate redevelopment with UN agencies and non-governmental organisations. Some of these PRTs are later taken over by NATO member and partner countries.

    21-22 November 2002: The Prague Summit paves the way for NATO to go "out-of-area".

    10 February 2013: Germany and the Netherlands jointly take on the third rotation of the command of ISAF, on the basis of UN Security Council Resolution 1444.

    AUGUST 2003 – SPRING 2006
    NATO TAKES THE LEAD OF ISAF AND EXPANDS NORTH AND WEST

    August 2003: NATO takes the lead of the ISAF operation under the Command of Lieutenant General Goetz Gliemeroth, Germany.

    31 December 2003: NATO-led ISAF initiates the expansion of ISAF to the north by taking over command of the German-led PRT in Kunduz.

    4 January 2004: After three weeks of debate, the Loya Jirga approves a new constitution.

    January 2004: Ambassador Hikmet Çetin, Turkey, takes up his post as the first NATO Senior Civilian Representative in Afghanistan.

    February 2004: Lieutenant General Rick Hillier, Canada, takes command of ISAF.

    31 March-1 April 2004: Berlin donors' conference on Afghanistan.

    28 June 2004: At the Istanbul Summit, NATO announces that it would establish four other PRTs in the north of the country: in Mazar-e-Sharif, Meymanah, Feyzabad and Baghlan.

    May-September 2004: ISAF expands to the west, first taking command of PRTs in the provinces of Herat and Farah and a Forward Support Base (a logistics base) in Herat, followed by PRTs in Chaghcharan, the capital of Ghor province, and one in Qala-e-Naw, capital of Badghis province. NATO-led ISAF is now providing security assistance in 50 per cent of Afghanistan's territory.

    August 2004: General Jean-Louis Py, France, takes command of ISAF.

    1 October 2004: NATO-led ISAF's expansion into Afghanistan's nine northern provinces is completed.

    9 October 2004: Hamid Karzai wins the presidential elections with 50 per cent of the vote.

    29 October 2004: In a video message, Osama Bin Laden takes responsibility for the 9/11 attacks and threatens the West with further attacks.

    February 2005: General Ethem Erdagi, Turkey, takes command of ISAF.

    August 2005: General Mauro del Vecchio, Italy, takes command of ISAF.

    September 2005: NATO temporarily deploys 2,000 additional troops to Afghanistan to support the provincial and parliamentary elections.

    18 September 2005: Legislative elections are held in Afghanistan. In the lower house of parliament, 68 out of 249 seats are reserved for female members, as are 23 out of 102 seats in the upper house.

    31 January 2006: At a conference in London, the Afghanistan Compact, a five-year plan of peacebuilding, is launched.

    February 2006: ISAF troops adopt more robust rules of engagement.

    May 2006: General David Richards, United Kingdom, takes command of ISAF.

    8 June 2006: Meeting in Brussels, defence ministers from 37 NATO and partner countries that are contributing to ISAF confirm they are ready to expand ISAF's operation to the south of Afghanistan. It is the first-ever meeting of ministers in ISAF format; after that, such meetings become a regular event.

    JULY 2006 – AUGUST 2009
    FROM PEACE-SUPPORT TO COMBAT: ISAF EXPANDS SOUTH AND EAST

    31 July 2006: NATO-led ISAF assumes command of the southern region of Afghanistan from US-led coalition forces, expanding its area of operations to cover an additional six provinces – Daikundi, Helmand, Kandahar, Nimroz, Uruzgan and Zabul – and taking on command of four additional PRTs. The expanded ISAF now leads a total of 13 PRTs in the north, west and south, covering some three-quarters of Afghanistan's territory.

    24 August 2006: Ambassador Daan Everts, the Netherlands, is appointed to the position of NATO Senior Civilian Representative in Afghanistan.

    5 October 2006: ISAF implements the final stage of its expansion, by taking on command of the international military forces in eastern Afghanistan from the US-led coalition. In addition ISAF starts to deploy training and mentoring teams to Afghan National Army units at various levels of command.

    28-29 November 2006: At the Riga Summit, NATO leaders agree to remove some of the national caveats and restrictions on how, when and where their forces can be used.

    February 2007: General Dan K. McNeill, United States, takes command of ISAF.

    3 April 2008: At the Bucharest Summit, ISAF troop-contributing nations set out a strategic vision for Afghanistan guided by four principles: a firm and shared long-term commitment; support for enhanced Afghan leadership and responsibility; a comprehensive approach by the international community, bringing together civilian and military efforts; and increased cooperation and engagement with Afghanistan's neighbours, especially Pakistan.

    May 2008: Ambassador Fernando Gentilini, Italy, takes up the post of NATO Senior Civilian Representative in Afghanistan.

    12 June 2008: A donors' conference for Afghanistan in Paris raises US$20 billion in commitments, but diplomats harshly criticise the Afghan government's performance in fighting corruption, tackling the drug trade and promoting reconstruction.

    June 2008: General David D. McKiernan, United States, takes over as Commander of ISAF.

    August 2008: Lead security responsibility for Kabul city is transferred to Afghan forces.

    December 2008: ISAF Commander Gen David D. McKiernan issues guidelines ordering (ISAF or US) soldiers to use force that is proportional to the provocation and that minimises the risk of civilian casualties.

    17 February 2009: New US President Barack Obama announces an additional 17,000 troops to be deployed to Afghanistan during the spring and summer to counter a resurgent Taliban and stem the flow of foreign fighters into the south of Afghanistan.

    27 March 2009: President Obama announces new strategy for Afghanistan and Pakistan. He also decides to deploy 4,000 troops to Afghanistan as trainers for the Afghan security forces.

    3-4 April 2009: At the Strasbourg/Kehl Summit, Allied leaders agree to send an additional 5,000 troops to train the Afghan security forces and provide security for the presidential elections in August.

    May 2009: UN Special Representative to Afghanistan Kai Eide expresses serious concern over reports of as many as 100 civilians having been killed by airstrikes against Taliban fighters in the western province of Farah on 4 May. President Karzai demands the cessation of airstrikes.

    June 2009: Lt Gen Stanley A. McChrystal, United States, takes command of NATO-led ISAF and of US forces in Afghanistan. This signals the adoption of a counter-insurgency strategy.

    June 2009: Lt Gen McChrystal announces restrictions on the use of airstrikes in an effort to reduce civilian deaths.

    20 August 2009: Presidential elections take place in Afghanistan but they are marred by widespread Taliban attacks, and lengthy vote counting and fraud investigations leave them unresolved for a couple of months.

    SEPTEMBER 2009 – FEBRUARY 2011
    COUNTERING THE INSURGENCY: MORE BOOTS ON THE GROUND

    20 September 2009: McChrystal's report to US Defense Secretary Robert Gates, calling for more troops in Afghanistan, is made public.

    2 November 2009: Hamid Karzai is declared President of Afghanistan for another five-year term following the cancellation of a second-round run-off with rival Abdullah Abdullah, who had announced his withdrawal.

    19 November 2009: President Karzai expresses his ambition to see the Afghan security forces take the lead for security across Afghanistan by the end of 2014.

    21 November 2009: Following decisions taken at the Strasbourg-Kehl Summit in April 2009, the NATO Training Mission-Afghanistan is formally activated. Its aim is to bring together efforts to train the Afghan forces.

    December 2009: Following a three-month review of the military campaign, President Obama decides on a troop surge involving the deployment of a further 30,000 troops, while also promising to start drawing down US troops by summer 2011. NATO Foreign Ministers announce the deployment of a further 7,000 soldiers.

    28 January 2010: At an international conference in London, high-level representatives from over 70 countries discuss plans to gradually hand over the lead for security operations to the Afghan security forces.

    28 January 2010: Ambassador Mark Sedwill, United Kingdom, assumes the position of NATO Senior Civilian Representative in Afghanistan.

    23 June 2010: ISAF Commander Lt Gen McChrystal is dismissed following a controversial article in Rolling Stone magazine in which he is quoted as being critical of the US administration. He is replaced by Gen David H. Petraeus, United States, who maintains the counter-insurgency strategy.

    20 July 2010: The Joint Afghan-NATO Inteqal Board is established as the mechanism to assess the readiness of districts and provinces to transition to Afghan lead for security.

    20 July 2010: At a conference in Kabul, hosted by the Afghan government and co-chaired by the United Nations, the government makes a renewed commitment to the Afghan people, presenting an Afghan-led plan for improving development, governance and security.

    September 2010: Afghan parliamentary elections take place, overshadowed by violence, fraud and delays in announcing the results.

    19-20 November 2010: At the Lisbon Summit, NATO leaders agree with the Afghan government to hand over full responsibility for security in Afghanistan from ISAF to Afghan forces by end 2014. The gradual transition to Afghan security lead is set to be launched in 2011, starting in areas that are relatively stable. NATO and Afghanistan also sign a declaration on Enduring Partnership, providing a framework for long-term political and practical support, designed to continue after the ISAF mission.

    MARCH 2011 – DECEMBER 2014
    TRANSITION TO AFGHAN LEAD FOR SECURITY

    22 March 2011: President Karzai announces the first set of Afghan provinces and districts to start transitioning towards Afghan lead for security.

    April 2011: Ambassador Simon Gass, United Kingdom, takes up the post of NATO Senior Civilian Representative in Afghanistan.

    1 May 2011: Bin Laden is killed by US special forces in Pakistan.

    22 June 2011: President Obama announces plans to withdraw 10,000 troops by end of year and the remaining 20,000 of the "surge" troops by summer 2012.

    July 2011: General John R. Allen, United States, takes command of ISAF.

    26 November 2011: Pakistani officials claim that NATO aircraft killed at least 25 soldiers in strikes against two military posts at the northwestern border with Afghanistan. NATO launches an investigation which later finds that poor coordination and mistakes made by both the NATO and Pakistani forces caused the incident.

    27 November 2011: Announcement of the second set of Afghan provinces, districts and cities to transition to Afghan security lead.

    5 December 2011: An international conference takes place in Bonn, to discuss cooperation with Afghanistan beyond the withdrawal of ISAF at the end of 2014. The Afghan president commits to strengthen the fight against corruption in exchange for continued international development aid. Pakistan boycotts the conference because of deaths caused by NATO airstrikes in November.

    25 February 2012: A gunman shoots dead two senior US military officers in the Afghan Interior Ministry. Taliban claim responsibility. Gen. John Allen, the commander of NATO and US forces, temporarily recalls all NATO personnel from Afghan ministries for force protection reasons.

    1 April 2012: The Regional Police Training Centre in Mazar-e Sharif is handed over to the Afghans. It later becomes a training site for the Afghan National Civil Order Police.

    13 May 2012: President Karzai announces the third set of areas to enter the transition process, covering over 75 per cent of the Afghan population.

    21 May 2012: At the Chicago Summit, leaders from NATO's 28 nations and the 22 partners in the ISAF coalition gave Afghanistan a clear, long-term commitment to continue supporting the Afghan security forces with training, advice and assistance after the NATO-led ISAF mission is completed in 2014. Over US$4 billion is pledged to sustain the Afghan forces.

    8 July 2012: At the Tokyo donors' conference on Afghanistan, the international community pledges US$16 billion in development aid through 2015 beyond the withdrawal of ISAF. But pressure is put on the government to hold inclusive, transparent and credible elections; to fight corruption and improve good governance; to uphold the constitution, especially human rights; and to enforce the rule of law.

    16 July 2012: The Afghan Army Special Operations Command is stood up.

    August 2012: English teaching at the Kabul Military Training Center is completely in the hands of Afghan instructors.

    October 2012: Ambassador Maurits R. Jochems, the Netherlands, takes up the position of NATO Senior Civilian Representative in Afghanistan.

    31 December 2012: Announcement of the fourth group of Afghan provinces, cities and districts to enter the transition process. With this decision, 23 provinces out of 34 have fully entered transition and 87 per cent of the population lives in areas where Afghan forces are in the lead for security.

    1 February 2013: The Afghan Ground Forces Command is established to oversee all operations in Afghanistan.

    February 2013: General Joseph F. Dunford, United States, takes command of ISAF.

    1 April 2013: The Afghan National Defence University is set up to train the future officers of the Afghan National Army.

    18 June 2013: President Karzai announces the launch of the fifth and final tranche of transition. Once fully implemented, this brings the 11 remaining provinces into transition and puts Afghan forces in the lead for security across the whole country.

    24 November 2013: The Loya Jirga, an Afghan assembly of tribal elders, votes in favour of a Bilateral Security Agreement with the United States, calling on President Hamid Karzai to sign the deal immediately. The agreement governs the presence of US troops in Afghanistan after 2014 and is needed to enable thousands of US soldiers to stay in Afghanistan after the withdrawal of ISAF.

    5 April 2014: Millions of men and women turn out in the first-round vote of the presidential election.

    14 June 2014: A second-round run-off in the presidential election takes place between Ashraf Ghani and Abdullah Abdullah.

    26 August 2014: US Army General John F. Campbell assumes duties as the Commander of ISAF (upon completion of ISAF’s operation in December 2014, he becomes the first commander of the follow-on Resolute Support Mission)

    September 2014: At the NATO Summit in Wales, the United Kingdom, the leaders of ISAF troop-contributing nations underline their commitment to continue to support Afghanistan post-2014.

    29 September 2014: After months of negotiations over contested election results, Dr Ashraf Ghani is sworn in as President of Afghanistan at a ceremony in Kabul, while presidential candidate Abdullah Abdullah is appointed as Chief Executive Officer of the National Unity Government.

    30 September 2014: A Status of Forces Agreement between NATO and Afghanistan is signed in Kabul. Ratified by the Afghan Parliament in November, it provides the legal framework for a new NATO-led non-combat mission ("Resolute Support") to train, advise and assist the Afghan security forces and institutions, starting in January 2015.

    12 December 2014: The UN Security Council unanimously adopts Resolution 2189, welcoming the new Resolute Support mission.

    28 December 2014: At a ceremony in Kabul, ISAF formally completes its mission in Afghanistan, concluding a three-year transition process whereby the lead for security was gradually transferred to the Afghans. The Afghan security forces now have full security responsibility.

    1 January 2015: Resolute Support is launched to continue to provide training, advice and assistance to Afghan National Defence and Security Forces (ANDSF) institutions.