NATO and Libya
Following the Qadhafi regime’s targeting of civilians in February 2011, NATO answered the United Nations’ (UN) call to the international community to protect the Libyan people. In March 2011, a coalition of NATO Allies and partners began enforcing an arms embargo, maintaining a no-fly zone and protecting civilians and civilian populated areas from attack or the threat of attack in Libya under Operation Unified Protector (OUP). OUP successfully concluded on 31 October 2011.
In February 2011, a peaceful protest in Benghazi in eastern Libya against the 42-year rule of Colonel Muammar Qadhafi met with violent repression, claiming the lives of dozens of protestors in a few days. As demonstrations spread beyond Benghazi, the number of victims grew. In response, the United Nations Security Council (UNSCR) adopted Resolution 1970 on 26 February 2011, which expressed “grave concern” over the situation in Libya and imposed an arms embargo on the country.
Following the adoption of Resolution 1970 and with growing international concern over the Libyan crisis, NATO stepped up its surveillance operations in the Mediterranean on 8 March 2011. The Alliance deployed Airborne Warning and Control Systems (AWACS) aircraft to the area to provide round-the-clock observation. These “eyes-in-the-sky” gave NATO detailed information about movements in Libyan airspace. Two days later the Alliance moved ships from current NATO assets, as well as ships made available by NATO nations for the mission, to the Mediterranean Sea to boost the monitoring effort.
After the situation in Libya further deteriorated, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 1973 on 17 March 2011. The resolution condemned the “gross and systematic violation of human rights, including arbitrary detentions, enforced disappearances, torture and summary executions.” It also introduced active measures, including a no-fly zone, and authorized member states, acting as appropriate through regional organizations, to use “all necessary measures” to protect Libyan civilians and civilian populated areas.
With the adoption of UNSCR 1973, several UN member states took immediate military action to protect civilians under Operation Odyssey Dawn. This operation, which was not under the command and control of NATO, was conducted by a multinational coalition led by the United States.
Responding to the United Nations’ call
On 22 March 2011, NATO responded to the UN’s call to prevent the supply of “arms and related materials” to Libya by agreeing to launch an operation to enforce the arms embargo against the country. The next day, NATO ships operating in the Mediterranean began cutting off the flow of weapons and mercenaries to Libya by sea. NATO maritime assets stopped and searched any vessel they suspected of carrying arms, related materials or mercenaries to or from Libya.
In support of UNSCR 1973, NATO then agreed to enforce the UN-mandated no-fly zone over Libya on 24 March 2011.The resolution banned all flights into Libyan airspace to protect civilian-populated areas from air attacks, with the exception of flights used for humanitarian and aid purposes.
The Alliance took sole command and control of the international military effort for Libya on 31 March 2011. NATO air and sea assets began to take military actions to protect civilians and civilian populated areas. Throughout the crisis, the Alliance consulted closely with the UN, the League of Arab States and other international partners.
Commitment to protecting the Libyan people
The Alliance’s decision to undertake military action was based on three clear principles: a sound legal basis, strong regional support and a demonstrable need. By the end of March 2011, OUP had three distinct components:
- Enforcing an arms embargo in the Mediterranean Sea to prevent the transfer of arms, related materials and mercenaries to Libya
- Enforcing a no-fly zone to prevent aircrafts from bombing civilian targets
- Conducting air and naval strikes against military forces involved in attacks or threatening to attack Libyan civilians and civilian populated areas
During a meeting in Berlin on 14 April 2011, foreign ministers from NATO Allies and non-NATO partners agreed to continue OUP until all attacks on civilians and civilian populated areas ended, the Qadhafi regime withdrew all military and para-military forces to bases, and the regime permitted immediate, full, safe and unhindered access to humanitarian aid for the Libyan people.
On 8 June 2011, NATO defence ministers met in Brussels and agreed to keep pressure on the Qadhafi regime for as long as it took to end the crisis, reaffirming the goals laid out by the foreign ministers.
Following the liberation of Tripoli on 22 August by opposition forces, the Secretary General reaffirmed both NATO’s commitment to protect the Libyan people and its desire that the Libyan people decide their future in freedom and in peace.
International heads of state and government further reiterated this commitment during a “Friends of Libya” meeting in Paris on 1 September.
On 16 September, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 2009, which unanimously reasserted NATO’s mandate to protect civilians in Libya. The new resolution also established a United Nations Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL).
Ending the mission
As NATO air strikes helped to gradually degrade the Qadhafi regime’s ability to target civilians, NATO defence ministers met in Brussels on 6 October and discussed the prospects of ending OUP. Ministers confirmed their commitment to protect the people of Libya for as long as threats persisted, but to end the mission as soon as conditions permitted. The NATO Secretary General also pledged to coordinate the termination of operations with the UN and the new Libyan authorities.
A day after opposition forces captured the last Qadhafi regime stronghold of Sirte and the death of Colonel Qadhafi on 20 October 2011, the North Atlantic Council took the preliminary decision to end OUP at the end of the month. During that transition period, NATO continued to monitor the situation and retained the capacity to respond to threats to civilians, if needed.
A week later, the North Atlantic Council confirmed the decision to end OUP. On 31 October 2011 at midnight Libyan time, a NATO AWACS concluded the last sortie; 222 days after the operation began. The next day, NATO maritime assets left Libyan waters for their home ports.
Although NATO’s operational role regarding Libya is finished, the Alliance stands ready to assist Libya in areas where it could provide added value, such as in the area of defence and security sector reforms, if requested to do so by the new Libyan authorities.
NATO’s North Atlantic Council (NAC) in Brussels, Belgium exercised overall political direction of OUP, while Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) in Mons, Belgium, carried out NAC decisions with military implementations through Joint Force Command (JFC) Naples.
Lieutenant General Charles Bouchard was the overall operational commander of the Combined Joint Task Force Unified Protector. Under his leadership, NATO Maritime Command Naples directed naval operations in support of OUP. Although NATO’s Air Command Headquarters for Southern Europe, in Izmir, Turkey (AC Izmir) managed air operations, the air campaign itself was conducted from NATO’s Combined Air Operations Centre Poggio Renatico in Italy. For this reason, major elements of AC Izmir were moved during the course of the OUP.
Italian Vice Admiral Rinaldo Veri from NATO Maritime Command Naples led the maritime arms embargo, while Rear Admiral Filippo Maria Foffi served as the Task Force Commander at sea.
No troops under NATO command were on the ground in Libya at any point during OUP.
February 2011 Peaceful protests in Benghazi meet with violent repression by the Qadhafi regime. 26 February 2011 The UN Security Council adopts Resolution 1970, which imposes an arms embargo on Libya. 8 March 2011 NATO deploys AWACS aircraft to the region. 10 March 2011 NATO moves ships to the Mediterranean Sea to boost the monitoring effort. 17 March 2011 The UN Security Council adopts Resolution 1973, which imposes a no-fly zone over Libya and authorizes member states “to take all necessary measures” to protect civilians and civilian-populated areas under attack or threat of attack. 19 March 2011 Several UN member states take immediate military action to protect Libyan civilians. 22 March 2011 NATO decides to enforce the UN-mandated arms embargo. 23 March 2011 NATO vessels in the Mediterranean begin cutting off the flow of weapons and mercenaries to Libya by sea. 24 March 2011 NATO takes the decision to enforce the UN-mandated no-fly zone over Libya in support of UNSCR 1973. 31 March 2011 NATO takes sole command of the international military effort regarding Libya. NATO air and sea assets begin taking military actions to protect civilians in Libya. 14 April 2011 NATO foreign ministers and partners agree to use all necessary resources to carry out the UN mandate. 8 June 2011 NATO defence ministers and partners decide to continue Operation Unified Protector for as long as it takes to end the crisis in Libya. 22 August 2011 The NATO Secretary General reaffirms NATO’s commitment to protect the Libyan people and its desire that the Libyan people decide their future in freedom and in peace. 1 September At a “Friends of Libya” meeting in Paris, international heads of state and government reiterate their commitment to protecting civilians in Libya. 16 September 2011 The UN Security Council adopts Resolution 2009, which unanimously reaffirms NATO’s mandate to protect Libyan civilians. 6 October NATO defence ministers reaffirm their commitment to protect the people of Libya for as long as threats to civilians persist. They also decide to end the mission as soon as conditions permit. 21 October 2011 The North Atlantic Council takes the preliminary decision to end operations at the end of the month. 28 October 2011 The North Atlantic Council confirms the decision to end OUP at the end of the month. 31 October 2011 At midnight Libyan time, a NATO AWACS concludes the last sortie over Libya. The next day, NATO maritime assets leave Libyan waters for their home ports
During the course of OUP, all Allies participated in the mission, either directly or indirectly, through NATO’s command structures and common funding. A number of partner nations supported the operation, including Sweden, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Jordan and Morocco.
In total, NATO and partner air assets had flown more than 26,000 sorties, an average of 120 sorties per day. Forty-two per cent of the sorties were strike sorties, which damaged or destroyed approximately 6,000 military targets. At its peak, OUP involved more than 8,000 servicemen and women, 21 NATO ships in the Mediterranean and more than 250 aircrafts of all types. By the end of the operation, NATO had conducted over 3,000 hailings at sea and almost 300 boardings for inspection, with 11 vessels denied transit to their next port of call.
In support of humanitarian assistance provided by the UN and nongovernmental organizations, among others, to proceed unhindered, NATO also de-conflicted nearly 4,000 air, sea and ground movements.