Vice-Admiral Rouleau completed the Advanced Military Studies Course (AMSC) at the Staff College in Toronto in the fall of 1998. In June 2002 he graduated from the National Security Studies Course (NSSC) and was appointed as Commander of the Fifth Maritime Operational Group and Deputy Fleet Commander (CMOG5) in Halifax. In December 2003, he assumed the responsibilities of Executive Assistant to the Chief of the Defence Staff at NDHQ Ottawa, and in May 2004, he was promoted to Commodore and appointed Director General Maritime Personnel and Readiness.
In the fall of 2005, he was selected for the Standing NATO maritime Group One Commander's position, and Vice-Admiral Rouleau commanded the Multi-National NATO Force at sea for one year, from January 2006 to January 2007. Upon his return to Canada in the spring of 2007 he was promoted to Rear-Admiral and appointed as Chief of Programme at NDHQ, in Ottawa. In June 2008, he was promoted to his current rank of Vice-Admiral and appointed as Vice Chief of the Defence Staff.
Vice-Admiral Rouleau was appointed to serve as Canada’s Military Representative to NATO in August 2010.