NATO’s modern defence posture is based on an effective combination of cutting-edge weapons systems and platforms, and forces trained to work together seamlessly. As important as it is that Allies invest in defence, it is also critical to invest in the right capabilities. NATO plays an important role in assessing what capabilities the Alliance needs, setting targets for national or collective development of capabilities, and facilitating national, multinational and collective capability development and innovation.
NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg visiting the AGS Global Hawk display
- The Strategic Concept identifies collective defence, crisis management and cooperative security as the essential core tasks that NATO must continue to fulfil to assure the security of its members. Deterrence based on an appropriate mix of nuclear, conventional and ballistic missile defence capabilities, remains a core element of NATO’s overall strategy.
- Allies have agreed to develop and maintain the full range of capabilities necessary to deter and defend against potential adversaries, where appropriate using multinational approaches and innovative solutions. The NATO Defence Planning Process (NDPP) is the primary means to identify and prioritise the capabilities required for full-spectrum operations, and to promote their development and delivery.
- Developing and procuring capabilities through multinational cooperation helps generating economies of scale, reducing costs, and delivering interoperability by design. NATO actively supports Allies in the identification, launch and implementation of multinational cooperation.
- Working closer with industry, building a stronger defence industry among Allies, greater defence industrial and technological cooperation across the Atlantic and within Europe, and a robust industrial base in the whole of Europe and North America, remain essential for acquiring needed Alliance capabilities.
As outlined in the 2010 Strategic Concept, Alliance leaders are committed to ensuring that NATO has the full range of capabilities necessary to deter and defend against any threat to the safety and security of Allies’ populations and territories. Therefore the Alliance will:
- maintain an appropriate mix of nuclear and conventional forces;
- maintain the ability to sustain concurrent major joint operations and several smaller operations for collective defence and crisis response, including at strategic distance;
- develop and maintain robust, mobile and deployable conventional forces to carry out both its Article 5 responsibilities and expeditionary operations, including with the NATO Response Force;
- carry out the necessary training, exercises, contingency planning and information exchange for assuring its defence against the full range of conventional and emerging security challenges, and provide appropriate visible assurance and reinforcement for all Allies;
- ensure the broadest possible participation of Allies in collective defence planning on nuclear roles, in peacetime basing of nuclear forces, and in command, control and consultation (C3) arrangements;
- develop the capability to defend NATO European populations, territories and forces against ballistic missile attack as a core element of its collective defence, which contributes to the indivisible security of the Alliance;
- further develop its capacity to defend against the threat of chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear weapons;
- further develop its ability to prevent, detect, defend against and recover from cyber attacks, including by using the NATO planning process to enhance and coordinate national cyber defence capabilities, bringing all NATO bodies under centralised cyber protection, and better integrating NATO cyber awareness, warning and response with member countries;
- enhance the capacity to contribute to the fight against terrorism, including through enhanced analysis of the threat, consultations with partners, and the development of appropriate military capabilities, including to help train partner forces to fight terrorism themselves;
- ensure that it is at the front edge in assessing the security impact of emerging technologies, and that military planning takes the potential threats into account;
- continue to review its overall posture in deterring and defending against the full range of threats to the Alliance, taking into account changes to the evolving international security environment.
The Allies provided political guidance in 2015 to refine further the overarching aims and objectives of the 2010 Strategic Concept by establishing what they expect the Alliance to be able to do in broad quantitative and qualitative terms, especially in the prevailing geo-strategic security environment. By setting the related priorities, this guidance mandates the delivery of the required capabilities through the NATO Defence Planning Process.
NATO Defence Planning Process
The NATO Defence Planning Process (NDPP) aims to harmonise national and Alliance defence planning activities. It details how the aims and objectives of the Alliance as set out in the political guidance are to be met. By setting targets for implementation by Allies, either individually or collectively, it guides both national, multinational and collective capability development and delivery.
By participating in the NDPP, and without compromising their national sovereignty, Allies can harmonise their national defence plans with those of NATO to identify, develop and deliver a fair share of the overall forces and capabilities needed for the Alliance to be able to undertake its full range of missions.
Information superiority helps commanders in the battlespace at every level make the best decisions, creating the circumstances for success at less risk and greater speed. NATO will therefore continue to develop and acquire a range of networked information systems (Automated Information Systems) that support NATO’s Strategic Commands. They cover a number of domains, including land, air, maritime, intelligence and logistics, with a view to enabling more informed and effective holistic oversight, decision-making and command and control.
Joint Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance
The Alliance has long recognised the fundamental importance of Joint Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (JISR) to its strategic preparedness and the success of its operations and missions. The aim of this capability is to support the coordinated collection, processing, and sharing within NATO of ISR material gathered by the future Alliance Ground Surveillance system (AGS), the current NATO Airborne Early Warning and Control Force (NAEW&C Force) and Allies’ own ISR assets.
In early 2016, NATO defence ministers declared an initial operational JISR capability centred on enhancing the situational awareness of NATO’s highest readiness forces. This initial operational capability was only the first milestone for the overall JISR initiative. Further work is ongoing to sustain these achievements and expand their scope. An enduring JISR capability is now being developed to strengthen the Alliance’s 360 degree awareness.
Alliance Ground Surveillance
The Alliance Ground Surveillance (AGS) programme represents an excellent example of transatlantic cooperation, thanks to the multinational industrial cooperation on which the programme has been founded. The AGS system is an essential enabling capability for forces across the full spectrum of NATO’s current and future operations and missions. Using advanced radar sensors, it will be able to continuously detect and track moving objects (such as tanks, trucks or helicopters, moving on or near the ground) in all weather conditions and provide radar imagery of areas of interest on the ground and at sea.
As such, AGS will complement the NATO Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS), which already monitors Alliance airspace. The AGS Core will be an integrated system consisting of air, ground and support segments. The air segment includes five Global Hawk aircraft.
NATO Airborne Warning & Control System
As one of the most visible and tangible examples of what cooperation between Allies can achieve, the NATO Airborne Warning & Control System (AWACS) provides NATO-owned and operated airborne command and control, air and maritime surveillance, and battlespace management capability. AWACS has continuously proven itself a critical asset over Libya and Afghanistan, and most recently safeguarding the Alliance’s eastern perimeter and providing support to the Global Coalition forces in their fight against ISIL.
AWACS aircraft will continue to be modernised and extended in service until 2035. The modernisation of NATO’s AWACS fleet is vital to ensuring the security of all Allies and will strengthen the Alliance’s awareness and capacity for strategic anticipation.
Alliance Future Surveillance and Control capability
At the Warsaw Summit in 2016, NATO leaders launched the Alliance Future Surveillance and Control (AFSC) initiative in order to determine how NATO maintains its situational awareness and commands Allied forces after the retirement of NATO AWACS in 2035. NATO is now moving forward to redefine its means for surveillance and control in the future.
In cooperation with Allied experts from a range of communities and backgrounds, including science and technology, military and industry, NATO is launching studies to evaluate new technologies. These studies will inform decisions by NATO, individual Allies, or multinational groups to develop and acquire new systems in the future. These solutions could include combinations of interconnected air, ground, space or unmanned systems to collect and share information.
Ballistic Missile Defence
In the context of a broader response to the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their delivery systems, NATO has been pursuing an Active Layered Theatre Ballistic Missile Defence programme since 2005. This programme aimed to protect deployed Allied forces against ballistic missile threats with ranges up to 3,000 kilometres. In 2010, it delivered an interim capability to protect troops in a specific area against short-range and some medium-range ballistic missiles.
At the Lisbon Summit in 2010, NATO’s leaders decided to expand the scope of the existing Theatre Ballistic Missile Defence (TBMD) programme beyond the capability to protect forces to also include NATO European populations and territory. During the 2016 Warsaw Summit, Allies officially declared initial operational capability of NATO BMD, which offers a stronger capability to defend Alliance populations, territory and forces across southern NATO Europe against a potential ballistic missile attack. The ultimate aim remains achieving the full operational capability providing coverage and protection to all NATO Europe.
Air Command and Control
NATO is implementing a fully interoperable Air Command and Control System (ACCS), which will provide for the first time a fully integrated set of tools to support the conduct of all air operations in both real-time and non-real-time environments. ACCS will make available the capability to plan, direct, task, coordinate, supervise, assess and report on the operation of all allocated air assets in peace, crisis and conflict.
The system is composed of both static and deployable elements with equipment that will be used both within the NATO Command Structure and in individual Allies. With the further inclusion of command and control (C2) functionality for Ballistic Missile Defence, a fully integrated system for air and missile defence will be fielded. The present schedule will see ACCS fully fielded in the 2021-2024 timeframe.
Federated Mission Networking
Federated Mission Networking (FMN) is a key contribution to the Connected Forces Initiative (CFI), helping Allied and partner forces to better communicate, train and operate together. The capability aims to support command and control as well as decision-making in future operations through improved information-sharing.
FMN is based on the Afghanistan Mission Network (AMN) lessons learned and the need for harmonised operational processes and scalable supporting systems for all future coalition missions. The objectives of FMN are to ensure consultation, command and control (C3) interoperability and readiness; it will underpin the Alliance’s ability to connect its information systems and operate effectively together, including with partners, on training, exercises and operations.
Cyber threats and attacks are becoming more common, sophisticated and damaging. The Alliance is faced with an evolving, complex threat environment. State and non-state actors can use cyber attacks in the context of military operations or as part of hybrid warfare.
NATO and its Allies rely on strong and resilient cyber defences to fulfil the Alliance’s core tasks of collective defence, crisis management and cooperative security. NATO needs to be prepared to defend its networks and operational capabilities against the growing sophistication of the cyber threats and attacks it faces.
Allies reaffirmed at the 2016 Warsaw Summit NATO’s defensive mandate and recognised cyberspace as a domain of operations in which NATO must defend itself as effectively as it does in the air, on land and at sea. Allies also pledged to strengthen and enhance the cyber defences of their national infrastructures and networks. The Cyber Defence Pledge aims to ensure that the Alliance keeps pace with the fast evolving cyber threat landscape and that Allies are capable of defending themselves in cyberspace.
Logistics planning is an integral part of NATO’s defence planning process. In concrete terms, logistics planning is done through the force planning process and Partnership for Peace (PfP) Planning and Review Process (PARP). It is at this level that the logistic capabilities needed to deploy, sustain and redeploy Alliance forces, are identified by the Strategic Commanders in consultation with participating countries.
Logistic capabilities can be called upon by NATO commanders as part of the operational planning process to be used in a NATO-led operation. National and NATO logistic plans must ensure that sufficient quantity and quality of logistic resources are available at the same readiness and deployability levels to support forces as needed.
NATO began to adapt its defensive posture in 2014 in response to the major changes in the security environment. Allies agreed at the 2016 Warsaw Summit to further strengthen the Alliance’s deterrence and defence posture in order to better protect their citizens, territories and forces and to enhance NATO’s efforts to project stability in its neighbourhood.
Many of the capabilities required to address today’s challenges can be very expensive when pursued by countries individually. Multinational approaches to capability delivery not only distribute the costs but can also benefit from economies of scale. For NATO, multinational cooperation remains an important means of delivering the capabilities that Allies need. Smart Defence is one of NATO’s approaches for bringing multinational cooperation to the forefront of Allies’ capability delivery efforts.
Developing greater European military capabilities through multinational cooperation will continue to strengthen the transatlantic link, enhance the security of all Allies and foster an equitable sharing of the burdens, benefits and responsibilities of Alliance membership. In this context, NATO works closely with the European Union, utilising agreed mechanisms, to ensure that Smart Defence and the EU's Pooling and Sharing initiative are complementary and mutually reinforcing. Through multinational cooperation Allies also contribute to maintaining a strong defence industry in Europe by making the fullest possible use of defence industrial cooperation across the Alliance.
NATO Response Force
The NATO Response Force (NRF) is a technologically advanced, multinational force made up of land, air, maritime and Special Operations Forces (SOF) components that the Alliance can deploy quickly to wherever it is needed. It has the overarching purpose of being able to provide a rapid military response to an emerging crisis, whether for collective defence purposes or for other crisis response operations. In light of the changing security environment to the east and south of the Alliance’s borders, Allies decided to enhance the NRF by both enlarging it and creating a Spearhead Force within it. Known as the Very High Readiness Joint Task Force (VJTF), it is able to begin deployment at very short notice, particularly on the periphery of NATO’s territory.
Framework Nations Concept
In June 2014, NATO defence ministers agreed the Framework Nations Concept, which sees groups of countries coming together for two purposes. Firstly, to maintain current capabilities and to act as a foundation for the coherent development of new capabilities in the medium to long term. This builds on the notions of multinational development of capabilities that are at the heart of Smart Defence. Secondly, the Framework Nations Concept reinforces engagement between nations as a mechanism for collective training and exercises in order to prepare groupings of forces. For example, those Allies that maintain a broad spectrum of capabilities provide a framework for other Allies to “plug” into.
Strategic and intra-theatre lift capabilities
Strategic and intra-theatre lift capabilities are a key enabler for operations and allow forces and equipment to be deployed quickly to wherever they are needed. While there is significant procurement nationally, many Allies have pooled resources, including with partner countries, to acquire new capacities through commercial arrangements or through purchase, to give them access to additional transport to swiftly move troops, equipment and supplies across the globe.
Air-to-air refuelling (AAR) tankers are a critical enabler for the projection of air power. In coalition operations AAR tankers are a pooled asset; therefore interoperability is essential. The modernisation of AAR tankers in Europe has been achieved through a multinational programme that led to a fleet of Multi-Role Tanker Transport. Through close cooperation with the European Defence Agency and the Joint Air Power Competence Centre (a NATO centre of excellence located in Germany), NATO continues to develop the interoperability and training required to enable this capability.
The overwhelming majority of military capabilities available for NATO operations are provided by NATO members. While national capability development is a sovereign responsibility, NATO plays an important supporting role in facilitating national capability development and delivery.
In accordance with the NATO Defence Planning Process (NDPP), which aims to harmonise national and Alliance defence planning activities, there are a number of capability development efforts undertaken by Allies individually and pursued through multinational cooperation within NATO, some examples being detailed further.
Countering improvised explosive devices
As seen in Afghanistan and elsewhere, improvised explosive devices (IEDs) have proven to be the weapon of choice for non-conventional adversarial forces. NATO must be prepared to counter IEDs in any land or maritime operation involving asymmetrical threats, in which force protection will remain a paramount priority.
Institutionalising counter-IED lessons learned across the last two decades of operations, NATO’s ambitious Counter-IED Action Plan has increased its focus on capabilities for attacking threat networks behind these destructive devices. Although developed in the counter-IED context, such capabilities can also contribute to counter-piracy, counter-proliferation and counter-terrorism operations.
21st century ground-based air defence
Modern air defence systems must be able to respond to a wide range of airborne threats, from hypersonic cruise missiles and fifth-generation fighters to low-altitude, slow-speed threats posed by unmanned aerial vehicles, rockets, artillery and mortar systems. NATO’s 21st century ground-based air defence initiative aims to harmonise national requirements and industrial capacity to respond to the current and next generation of air threats through multinational cooperation in science and technology, procurement and increased industry engagement.
Dismounted soldier systems
In NATO operations, each individual deployed out on the field regardless of whether it is a soldier, marine, sailor or airman is equipped with appropriate gear to successfully carry out his or her mission. It is essential that what the soldier is wearing, carrying and consuming is safe, interoperable and reliable to maximise battlefield effectiveness and survivability. As such, the aim of dismounted soldier systems is the standardization and harmonisation of individual combat and support equipment for NATO and partner nations.
Deployable Air Base Concept
The NATO Deployable Air Base (NDAB) concept provides NATO with the capability to deliver airport and air navigation services to both military and civil aircraft operating 24/7 in all weather conditions. By deploying specific equipment, bare-base airfields could become appropriate for military operations and for civilian use.
Digital acoustic underwater networks
Aimed at enhancing Anti-Submarine Warfare capabilities, NATO has developed the first-ever standard for digital underwater (UW) acoustic communications. Based upon the JANUS protocol, this standard is a key enabler for interoperability of maritime underwater systems. The advanced capability provides NATO maritime forces with a key technological edge as part of its efforts to improve maritime engagement capabilities across the Alliance.
Modular ship design
Modular ship design specifications are innovative implementations in ship building that expand the range of achievable missions, extend the lifespan of maritime platforms and enable reduced fleet sizes without impacting operational capacity. They also promote interoperability between Allied maritime forces as NATO works to improve overall maritime engagement capabilities. Allied navies are cooperating on the development and implementation of standards to enable a ‘plug-and-play’ concept that will allow ship combat and support systems to be optimised to each specific mission and share capabilities, with only minimal disruption to readiness and availability. Modular ship design principles are expected to be implemented on all next-generation Allied surface vessels.
Alliance maritime capabilities have an enduring value and an important cross-cutting contribution to Alliance security. In January 2011, NATO adopted the Alliance Maritime Strategy. Consistent with the 2010 Strategic Concept, the Strategy sets out ways in which NATO's unique maritime power can be used to address critical security challenges and play a key role in deterrence and collective defence; crisis management; cooperative security; and maritime security. In the current security context, the Alliance’s naval forces provide essential contributions to maritime situational awareness, assurance measures,and current operations.
The Alliance continues to implement its maritime strategy through capability development, an enhanced programme of maritime exercises and training, and the enhancement of cooperation between NATO and its partners, as well as other international actors, including the European Union. NATO’s maritime role in the Mediterranean through Operation Sea Guardian, a broader non-Article 5 Maritime Security Operation, as well as NATO’s activity in the Aegean Sea are examples of how NATO's naval forces contribute to helping address numerous security challenges.
Total system approach to aviation
The Alliance will continue to develop its capabilities by addressing all aspects related to aviation, including air traffic management, aeronautical technologies, airfield capabilities, manned aircraft and remotely piloted air systems, airworthiness, licensing and training, in the context of the global aviation developments in the civil and military domain. The Alliance air missions’ success depends on a combination of technical, organisational, procedural and human factors, all working seamlessly towards the mitigation of hazards and risks to the safety and security of aerospace activities.
Engagement with industry
The majority of capabilities are produced by industry, and further maintained and repaired, modernised and adapted, and retired by industry. Allies recognised the relevance of engaging closer, and earlier in the capability development process, with the defence and security industry, and to maintain a strong defence industrial base in Europe and across the Atlantic, including through small- and medium-sized enterprises. New challenges are dealt with through innovative capabilities. Therefore a sustainable, innovative and globally competitive industry is critical in that sense.