NATO - North Atlantic Treaty Organization

  • Darfur, NATO’s assistance to the African Union for
    Assisting the African Union in Darfur, Sudan Information on NATO assistance to the African Union can be found on:
  • Defence, Smart -
    Smart Defence
  • Defence against terrorism programme of work (DAT POW)
    Defence against terrorism programme of work (DAT POW) NATO is developing new, cutting-edge technologies and capabilities to protect troops and civilians against terrorist attacks. The aim of the DAT POW is to prevent non-conventional attacks, such as suicide attacks with improvised explosive device or mitigate other challenges such as attacks on critical infrastructure. As the threat is urgent, most projects launched under the DAT POW are focused on finding solutions that can be fielded in the short term. The programme meets critical military requirements and addresses Alliance shortfalls. The DAT POW development is driven by the latest political guidance, provided by the 2010 Strategic concept and the 2010 Lisbon summit declaration. It is influenced by NATO’s new counter terrorism policy guidelines endorsed at the 2012 Chicago summit. A unique initiative by lead nations The DAT POW is a unique programme built on the principle of common funding. It is a fast route to capability development. Under the DAT POW, individual NATO nations, with support and contributions from other member countries and NATO bodies, lead projects to develop advanced technologies which meet the most urgent security needs in the face of terrorism. This Programme was approved by NATO leaders at the 2004 Istanbul Summit to strengthen the Alliance’s contribution to combating terrorism by enhancing capability development, supporting operations and fostering partnerships. Three capability umbrellas to engage DAT POW stakeholders The DAT POW projects are rationalized under three capability umbrellas: Incident management Force protection and survivability Network engagement. 1) Incident management This umbrella covers training and development initiatives to improve organization and coordination capabilities in the event of an attack. Protection of harbours and ports The safe and uninterrupted functioning of ports and harbours is critical to the global economy and it is essential that maritime assets be made as secure as possible. To enhance maritime protection, varied technologies are being explored. These include sensor nets, electro-optical detectors, rapid reaction capabilities and unmanned underwater vehicles. A maritime mission planning tool, known as “Safe port”, is being developed under the leadership of Portugal. Ongoing work led by Poland aims to develop an underwater magnetic barrier to complement sonar systems currently used to detect underwater threats. Additional trials, experimentation and exercises are being organized by Latvia, Iceland and the NATO Centre for Maritime Research on protection of ports, civilian/military cooperation, protection against Improvised Explosive Devices and the development of architectures of systems. 2) Force protection/ survivability This umbrella covers training and development initiatives “to minimize the vulnerability of personnel, facilities, equipment and operations to any threat and in all situations.” Reducing the vulnerability of wide-body civilian and military aircraft to man-portable air defence systems (MANPADs) A range of infrared countermeasures is under development. These have successfully been applied to large aircraft and helicopter platforms and have led to an increase in the number of platforms supporting operations and their level of protection. The UK is the lead nation for this initiative and the NATO Air Force Armaments Group (NAFAG) has provided critical expertise and support to the annual field trials. Reducing the vulnerability of helicopters to rocket propelled grenades (RPGs) The threat posed by RPGs against Alliance helicopters deployed in operations is significant. Current work builds on an earlier initiative led by Bulgaria on the development of helicopter armour. France, as contributing nation, through the Délégation Générale pour l'Armement and industrial partners, has conducted tests on innovative technologies to protect heavy helicopters at distances where avoidance of RPGs is no longer possible. Detecting, protecting against and defeating chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) weapons. The ideal would be to prevent terrorists from using CBRN weapons but there is a requirement to protect forces and populations against their effects should prevention fail. France, as the first lead nation in this effort, had developed a work plan which included live exercices, CBRN agent sampling and identification analysis. A broad range of technologies were tested against a number of CBRN-related threats. Since 2012 the Czech Republic has been developing a prototype for chemical detection and in June 2012 Canada organized Exercise PRECISE RESPONSE, exploring a scenario with a live agent, for training purposes. Countering improvised explosive devices (C-IED) This effort is led by Spain through the NATO C-IED Centre of excellence in Madrid but draws on expertise from several member countries’ industries and the NATO industrial advisory group (NIAG). Various technologies to defeat the device have been explored, in particular stand-off detection. In 2012 DAT POW with the NATO communication and information agency (NCIA) organized a route clearance demonstration in Germany to improve doctrine, share best practice andstandardize NATO route clearance operations. Additional CIED related projects led by NCIA involve automated data mining and scanning systems for passengers. Explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) and consequence management Here the objective is to improve NATO’s capabilities, the training of EOD teams and management of the consequences of an explosion. DAT POW supports the annual Northern challenge exercise, led by Iceland, which involves underwater EOD/ IED disposal/conventional munitions disposal (CMD) and is open to NATO and Partnership for Peace Nations,. In 2012, DAT POW supported NATO EOD demonstrations and trials, led by the NATO EOD Centre of Excellence in Trencin, Slovakia. The strong community of interest includes experts from partner nations, such as the Irish defence forces ordnance school. Developing Non-lethal capabilities The NATO operational community has stressed the need for better response capabilities which minimize collateral damage. If forces can only respond in a lethal manner civilians and military alike are endangered and mission failure and political fallout may result. Building on previous work led by Canada to identify non-lethal capabilities for NATO forces, Belgium and France are co-leading a project on standards for non lethal weapons. The Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation in La Spezia, Italy, is exploring the behavioural effects of non lethal weapons. Protection of critical infrastructure This is becoming an overarching project since it involves protection of NATO’s infrastructure, personnel and citizens. It is closely linked to other initiatives such as harbour protection, intelligence, reconnaissance, surveillance and target acquisition and defence against mortar attacks. In October 2009 the BELCOAST 09 exercise incorporated many DAT initiatives in a multi-dimensional threat environment. This initiative is now integrated into the harbor protection program led by Portugal. Technologies to defend against mortar attacks As a result of the increasing number of terrorist mortar attacks in Afghanistan and Iraq, this work was initiated in 2006 by the Netherlands and taken up by Norway in 2007. The aim was to employ new technologies to detect mortar-firing positions and then to react with sufficient speed and accuracy against the attacker or destroy the projectiles. This initiative was closed upon completion in 2010 and the resulting architecture of systems is in use in Afghanistan. 3) Network Engagement This capability umbrella covers training and development to improve identification and targeting of key nodes of threat networks. Technologies and concept development for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR) and target acquisition The goal is to develop improved tools for early warning and identification of terrorists and their activities. To build on the improved intelligence/information sharing achieved over the last decade in common operations and to capture these developments for the future, DAT POW supported Trial Unified Vision 2012, organized by the joint capability group ISR.Simulating a real–world operational environment, the trial sought to determine how well participants could analyze threat information and identify and track threats to form a cohesive intelligence picture and how easily this could be shared. DAT POW also supports the NATO HUMINT centre of excellence in Oradea, Romania, which is seeking to improve technical interoperability within the NATO HUMINT community and to analyse human aspects of the operational environment where NATO forces operate. Biometrics Biometrics data are essential for the protection of forces in theatre, allowing them to identify known or suspected insurgents. The Strategic Commands have recognized that developing and improving this area is a military requirement and a NATO biometrics Concept is being developed. The concept establishes a structure that allows NATO nations to choose their level of participation in biometrics operations, while maintaining control of biometric data produced by their forces. The DAT POW community is involved in and supportive of this effort and its multiple strands of work (doctrine, concept, standardization and capabilities). Special Operations Forces Community Recognized as one of the lead entities in the fight against terrorism, special operations forces (SOF) are a crucial component of the DAT POW. DAT POW supported the NATO special operations headquarters (NSHQ)in developing a mobile laboratory permitting forensics investigation of IED incidents in theatre. DAT POW is now supporting the development of a database for NATO special operation counter terrorism activities.
  • Defence and security economics
    Defence and security economics Economic security is a critical dimension of NATO’s priorities with Allies and global partners. The potential disruption to the flow of economic resources comprising people, goods and strategic commodities can pose challenges and opportunities to the security of the Alliance, as underlined by NATO’s Strategic Concept – the official document that sets out NATO’s enduring purpose, nature and fundamental security tasks. A proper understanding of defence and security economics is an essential contribution to NATO’s work in pre-conflict, conflict and post-conflict environments. At present, NATO’s efforts are focused on Afghanistan, international economic security, partnerships and supporting the development and sharing of economic intelligence. Economic cooperation has always been an important aspect of the Alliance. Article 2 of the North Atlantic Treaty, clearly states that member countries “will seek to eliminate conflict in their international economic policies and will encourage economic collaboration between any or all of them.”  Economic cooperation between Allies and, over time, with partners began formally in 1957 with the establishment of the Economic Committee. The Committee conducted multi-faceted work on economic security until mid-2010, when it was dissolved and its tasks pursued within other committees. The Defence and Security Economics (DSE) section of the Political Affairs and Security Policy Division of the International Staff constitutes the core team that deals with defence and security economics on a day-to-day basis. Core tasks Afghanistan The primary work of DSE is directed to supporting NATO’s efforts in Afghanistan and to providing assessments on international economic security in a world where the balance of international economic power is changing. In this regard, DSE has developed various important initiatives in support of NATO ISAF and Afghanistan. Firstly, DSE has significantly contributed to the development of the NATO Afghan First Policy that seeks to reduce the risk of corruption in the contracting for goods and services in support of economic development and security in Afghanistan. Secondly, DSE, in partnership with international organisations and NGOs, is engaged in building the capacity of the government of Afghanistan to reduce corruption in defence and security establishments in Afghanistan. This includes the application of Building Integrity tools (a NATO initiative first developed in 2007) to support NATO ISAF in developing anti-corruption training for the Afghan National Army and the national Police. Thirdly, DSE interacts with the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank in assessing those economic and financial issues that are critical to Afghanistan’s medium- and long-term economic development and security. International economic security The challenges confronting the Alliance in the wake of the global economic recession in 2008 have been felt in the pressure imposed on national defence budgets at a time of economic and fiscal austerity. In an increasingly complex financial and economic world, international economic collaboration is a fundamental condition for stability and security, together with measures to ensure that NATO members continue to devote the necessary budgetary resources to defence and security capabilities. DSE organises workshops and interacts with other divisions within the International Staff (the Emerging Security Challenges and the Defence Policy and Planning Divisions) in focusing upon the affordability and sustainability of defence spending within the Alliance set against the backcloth of the changing distribution of international economic power. Increasingly, budgetary and financial constraints make it essential that Allies implement “Smart Defence” arrangements, as proposed and emphasised by NATO’s Secretary General, Anders Fogh Rasmussen. Partnerships In coordination with other entities within the International Staff, DSE contributes to the monitoring and assessment of the economic performance of partners in the framework of their Annual national Plans and Membership Action Plans. Additionally, discussions with partners can focus on assessing developments in economic security, as well as supporting their efforts to manage the socio-economic consequences of defence sector restructuring and downsizing (in support of vital defence reform and defence conversion) and to promote better management of scarce defence and security sector financial resources. Economic Intelligence DSE retains access to a network of defence economic experts from Allied capitals who previously contributed to the analytical work of the Economic Committee. With the reform of NATO intelligence structures and processes, DSE remains able to support this work with contributions on economic intelligence. Working mechanisms The Defence and Security Economics (DSE) section of the Political Affairs and Security Policy Division in the NATO International deals with defence and security economics.  DSE was reorganised in 2010 after the dissolution of the NATO Economic Committee and provides expert advice and inputs to the Political and Partnerships Committee and the Operations Policy Committee. It also contributes to the work conducted by other divisions in support of NATO’s operations and partnerships. The Head of DSE is also NATO’s Senior Defence Economist and is responsible for internal liaison with NATO committees, agencies and other bodies. He is also responsible for external liaison with pivotal international economic organisations such as the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and other major international economic organisations. DSE also maintains an extensive network of contacts with experts on defence and security economics in prominent international think tanks.
  • Defence Expenditures, Information on
    Information on Defence Expenditures NATO publishes an annual compendium of financial, personnel and economic data for all member countries. Since 1963, this report has formed a consistent basis of comparison of the defence effort of Alliance members based on a common definition of defence expenditure. Through the links below, you can find data covering the years from 1949 to the present. Working mechanism The figures represent payments actually made or to be made during the course of the fiscal year. They are based on the NATO definition of defence expenditure. In view of the differences between this and national definitions, the figures shown may diverge considerably from those which are quoted by national authorities or given in national budgets. Evolution Each year, updated tables with nations’ defence expenditures are published on the NATO website in PDF and Excel format.  The latest version of the compendium provides tables covering key indicators on the financial and economic aspects of NATO defence, including: Total defence expenditures Defence expenditure and GDP growth rates Defence expenditures as a percentage of GDP Defence expenditures and GDP per capita Defence expenditures by category Armed forces personnel strength Archive of tables    2010 2011 2013             2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1970 1971     1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979       1963 1964 1965   1967   1969
  • Defence Investment Division
    Defence Investment Division Equipping NATO's armed forces for the 21st Century The Defence Investement Division at NATO Headquarters provides policy, technical, financial and procedural expertise relating to armaments, air defence, airspace management and security investment. What are its tasks and responsibilities? The Division's work focuses on the development of military capabilities and oversees investment in NATO assets, thereby ensuring that forces assigned to the Alliance are properly equipped and interoperable to undertake the full range of military missions. Who participates? The Division is composed of 116 members of NATO's International Staff. It is led by the Assistant Sectretary General for Defence Investment. How does it work in practice? The work of the Division is done by three principle directorates: Armaments Air Defence and Airspace Management Security Investment Programme The Division also includes the International Staff support element for the NATO Headquarters, Consultation, Command and Control Staff. Armaments Directorate The Armaments Directorate addresses a range of defence investment priorities and supports the Conference of National Armaments Directors (CNAD), the senior NATO committee responsible for armaments co-operation, materiel standardisation and defence procurement matters. High-priority on-going work includes NATO’s Long Term Capability Requirements programme and the new Defence Against Terrorism Programme of Work. Additionally, the Directorate works in close co-operation with defence industry through the NATO Industrial Advisory Group. Air Defence and Airspace Management (ADAM) Directorate The Air Defence and Airspace Management Directorate's mission is to provide policy, technical expertise and support on all areas of Alliance air defence and air traffic management, including: assisting in the development of Alliance air defence policy and capabilities including a theatre ballistic missile defence programme; and in the development of Alliance Deployable Air Traffic Management and Airport Capabilities; overseeing cooperation with partner countries and countries from the Mediterranean Dialogue on air defence and air traffic management related topics, including the Air Situation Data Exchange Programme with Partners; supporting Alliance work related to early warning information on missile launches; ensuring the safeguard and promotion of NATO requirements in civil-military air traffic management co-ordination, in co-operation with other NATO bodies and relevant international organisations such as the EU, the European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation, the International Civil Aviation Organization, the International Air Transport Association; fostering the development and implementation of aviation security measures; supporting NATO operations through liaison with international civil aviation organisations and providing expert advice on airspace, air traffic management and airport matters; facilitating liaison between the Secretary General and relevant committees and groups. Security Investment Directorate (SID) The key objective of the Security Investment Directorate is to ensure the timely provision of Alliance common-funded capabilities in support of the operational requirements of NATO's military authorities. Funding of these capabilities is provided through the NATO Security Investment Programme. NATO Headquarters, Consultation, Command and Control Staff (NHQC3S) The mission of the NHQC3S is to identify, develop and influence policy and standards, and provide analyses, advice, products and services to our customers in order to contribute directly to the NATO alliance's cost-effective, interoperable, harmonized and secure consultation, command and control capability.
  • Defence Planning Process
    The NATO Defence Planning Process Defence planning in the Alliance is a crucial tool which enables member countries to benefit from the political, military and resource advantages of working together. Within the defence planning process, Allies contribute to enhancing security and stability, and share the burden of developing and delivering the necessary forces and capabilities needed to achieve the Organization’s objectives. The defence planning process prevents the renationalisation of defence policies, while at the same time recognizing national sovereignty. The aim of NATO defence planning is to provide a framework within which national and Alliance defence planning activities can be harmonized to meet agreed targets in the most effective way. It aims to facilitate the timely identification, development and delivery of the necessary range of forces - forces that are interoperable and adequately prepared, equipped, trained and supported - as well as the associated military and non-military capabilities to undertake the Alliance’s full spectrum of missions. The NDPP has a coherent and comprehensive defence planning process. It applies a specific approach and mechanism through which NATO is bringing its civilian and military side, including the Strategic Commands, closer together by engaging them in a common, functionally integrated approach to the issue of defence planning alongside national planners. Work is done in a functionally integrated manner while at the same time ensuring that products are fully coordinated, coherent, persuasive, clear, result-oriented and delivered on a timely basis. Defence planning encompasses several planning domains: force, resource, armaments, logistics, nuclear, C3 (consultation, command and control), civil emergency planning, air defence, air traffic management, standardization, intelligence, medical support and research and technology. The NDPP has introduced a new approach to defence planning and operates within the new NATO committee structure. The Defence Policy and Planning Committee (DPPC) is the central body that oversees the work of NATO bodies and committees responsible for the planning domains. The NATO Defence Planning Process – NDPP The NDPP consists of five steps. Although the process is sequential and cyclical in nature (four year cycle with bi-annual elements), some elements occur at different frequencies and Step 4 is a continuous activity. Step 1 - Establish political guidance The intent is to develop a single, unified political guidance for defence planning which sets out the overall aims and objectives to be met by the Alliance. It translates guidance from higher strategic policy documents (i.e., the Strategic Concept and subsequent political guidance) in sufficient detail to direct the defence planning efforts of the various planning domains, both in member countries and in NATO, towards the determination of the required capabilities. This will obviate the requirement for other political guidance documents for defence planning. Political guidance should reflect the political, military, economic, legal, civil and technological factors which could impact on the development of the required capabilities. It will, inter alia, aim at defining the number, scale and nature of the operations the Alliance should be able to conduct in the future (commonly referred to as NATO’s Level of Ambition). It will also define the requisite qualitative capability requirements to support this overall ambition. By doing so, it will steer the capability development efforts of Allies and within NATO. Furthermore, it will clearly define associated priorities and timelines, as appropriate, for use by the various planning domains. Any political guidance needs to be written against the background that the majority of capabilities sought by the Alliance are and will be provided by individual member countries. Political guidance will be reviewed at least every four years. Step 2 - Determine requirements There is one single consolidated list of Minimum Capability Requirements, including eventual shortfalls. These requirements are identified by the Defence Planning Staff Team, with the Strategic Commands, notably Allied Command Transformation in the lead. The team take into account all NDPP-related guidance and ensure that all requirements considered necessary to meet quantitative and qualitative ambitions set out in the political guidance are covered. The process is structured, comprehensive, transparent and traceable and uses analytical supporting tools coupled with relevant NATO expert analysis. Planning domains are fully engaged throughout the analysis, assisting the Strategic Commands in providing a sound framework for further work which, ultimately, needs to be usable by each planning domain. Strategic Commands must be transparent, while ensuring that political considerations do not prematurely qualify the process during which requirements are identified. This is achieved by seeking expert advice and feedback from member countries, inviting the latter to observe key milestones and decision points, together with regular briefings to Allies. Step 3 - Apportion requirements and set targets Target setting initially apportions the overall set of Minimum Capability Requirements to individual countries and NATO entities in the form of target packages, respecting the principles of fair burden-sharing and reasonable challenge. Initially led by the Strategic Commands, the Defence Planning Staff Team will develop targets for existing and planned capabilities against the Minimum Capability Requirements and cover them in the draft target packages, together with their associated priorities and timelines. Targets should be expressed in capability terms and be flexible enough to allow national, multinational as well as collective implementation. Each individual Ally has the opportunity to seek clarification on the content of targets and present its national views on their acceptance during a meeting between the relevant national authorities and representatives from the Defence Planning Staff Team. Subsequently, the Defence Planning Staff Team will consider the member country’s perspective and priorities with the aim of refining the NATO target packages and providing advice on what constitutes a reasonable challenge. Following discussions with member countries, leadership of the Defence Planning Staff Team will transition from the Strategic Commands to the International Staff. At this point, the Defence Planning Staff Team will continue to refine and tailor individual draft target packages in line with the principle of reasonable challenge. To ensure transparency and promote Alliance cohesion, packages will be forwarded to Allies with a recommendation of which targets should be retained or removed to respect this principle. Allies will review these packages during a series of multilateral examinations. Agreed packages are accompanied by a summary report, which is prepared by the Defence Policy and Planning Committee (Reinforced), on the targets as a whole. This will subsequently be forwarded to permanent representatives for submission to defence ministers for adoption. The summary will include an assessment of the potential risk and possible impact caused by the removal of planning targets from packages on the delivery of the Alliance’s Level of Ambition. Step 4 - Facilitate Implementation This step assists national efforts and facilitates multinational and collective efforts to satisfy agreed targets and priorities in a coherent and timely manner. The aim is to focus on addressing the most important capability shortfalls. This is done by encouraging national implementation, facilitating and supporting multinational implementation and proceeding with the collective (multinational, joint or common-funded) acquisition of the capabilities required by the Alliance. This step also facilitates national implementation of standardization products (STANAGs/Allied Publications) developed to improve interoperability. The detailed work needed to develop and implement a capability improvement or action plan is carried out by multidisciplinary task forces. These task forces are composed of representatives from all stakeholders, under the lead of a dedicated entity. Each task force is supported by a “Capability Monitor” who keep themselves abreast of progress in the implementation phase and report to all relevant bodies and committees, providing feedback and additional guidance to the task force leader. Unlike other steps in the process, this step – or function - is continuous in nature. Step 5 - Review results This step seeks to examine the degree to which NATO’s political objectives, ambitions and associated targets have been met and to offer feedback and direction for the next cycle of the defence planning process. The Defence Planning Capability Review (DPCR) scrutinises and assesses Allies’ defence and financial plans as well as collective efforts so as to provide an overall assessment of the degree to which the combined Alliance forces and capabilities are able to meet the political guidance, including the NATO Level of Ambition. The DPCR provides a key mechanism for generating feedback and input for the next cycle. Capability reviews will be carried out every two years. The review process begins with the development of the Defence Planning Capability Survey. It seeks data on national plans and policies, including Allies’ efforts (national, multinational and collective) to address their planning targets. It also seeks information on the national inventory of military forces and associated capabilities, any relevant non-military capabilities potentially available for Alliance operations and national financial plans. The Defence Planning Staff Team conduct a preliminary analysis and produces draft assessments for each Ally. These assessments constitute a comprehensive analysis of national plans and capabilities, including on force structures, specific circumstances and priorities. The assessments also include a statement by the Strategic Commands regarding the impact each country’s plans have on the ability of Allied Command Operations to conduct missions. They may also include recommendations including, as appropriate, on the redirection of resources from surplus areas to the identified Alliance deficiencies areas. Once a draft assessment has been developed, it will be circulated to the country concerned for discussion between the national authorities and the Defence Planning Staff Team to ensure information in the draft assessment is correct. The draft assessments are then revised accordingly and submitted to the Defence Policy and Planning Committee (Reinforced) for review and approval during a series of multilateral examinations. During these examinations, the working practice of consensus-minus-one will be continued. In parallel with the examination of country assessments, the Military Committee, based on the Strategic Commands’ Suitability and Risk Assessment, will develop a risk assessment on the military suitability of the plans and the degree of military risk associated with them in relation to political guidance for defence planning, including the Level of Ambition. On the basis of the individual country assessments and Military Committee Suitability and Risk Assessment, the Defence Policy and Planning Committee (Reinforced) prepares a NATO Capabilities Report, highlighting individual and collective progress on capability development as it relates to NATO’s Level of Ambition. The Report will also provide an assessment of any associated risks, including a brief summary of the Military Committee’s Suitability and Risk Assessment. It will also include an indication of whether the risks identified could be mitigated by capabilities developed by member countries outside the NATO defence planning process or by contracting civil assets. This would not relieve Allies from the obligation of trying to meet NATO’s Level of Ambition from within Alliance inventories, nor would it diminish the need to develop the capabilities sought. However, it will assist defence planners in prioritising their efforts to overcome the most critical shortfalls first. The report will also contain further direction to steer capability development. Current support structures Although a more integrated and comprehensive process has been agreed comprising a coordinating framework with more flexible working arrangements, the committee and staff structures to support the process remain unchanged. The senior committee for defence planning The Defence Policy and Planning Committee is the senior committee for defence planning. It is responsible for the development of defence planning-related policy and the overall coordination and direction of NDPP activities. Effectively, the DPPC is the central body that oversees the work of the NATO bodies and committees responsible for the planning domains on behalf of the North Atlantic Council. It can provide feedback and, as required, defence planning process-related direction to them. On appropriate occasions and as required by the subject matter being reviewed and discussed, the DPPC will meet with appropriate subject matter experts invited to “reinforce” the regular representatives. When meeting in this format the DPPC is referred to as the DPPC “Reinforced” or DPPC(R). Capability Development Executive Board (CEDB) The CDEB is a senior staff-level board providing unity of oversight, policy, direction and guidance, and enforce authority and accountability throughout NATO capability development, bringing together the senior leadership of the relevant civil and military capability development stakeholders in the NATO staffs. The CDEB acts as a steering board to direct staff efforts associated with NATO capability development in accordance with the guidance provided by nations through the relevant committees. This executive body brings all relevant stakeholders together at a senior level to take authoritative decisions with regard to staff efforts associated with capability development which would be implemented, via their representative, by the relevant staff entities. Defence Planning Staff Team The work of the DPPC and CDEB is supported by the NATO Defence Planning Staff Team. Conceptually, the Defence Planning Staff Team is a virtual pool of all civil and military expertise resident within the various NATO HQ staffs and Strategic Commands. This entity supports the entire defence planning process throughout the five steps. In practice, the Defence Planning Staff Team provides the staff officers required to undertake the majority of the staff work to support the NDPP. The planning domains and related committees In concrete terms, defence planning at NATO encompasses many different domains: force, resource, armaments, logistics, nuclear, C3 (consultation, command and control), civil emergency, air defence, air traffic management, standardization, intelligence, medical support and research and technology. Force planning Force planning aims to promote the availability of national forces and capabilities for the full range of Alliance missions. In practical terms, it seeks to ensure that Allies develop modern, deployable, sustainable and interoperable forces and capabilities, which can undertake demanding operations wherever required, including being able to operate abroad with limited or no support from the country of destination. However, force planning should not be understood to refer primarily to “forces”; the focus is on “capabilities” and, how best nations should organise their priorities to optimise these. Therefore force planning also addresses capability areas that are also covered by single-area specific planning domains. The term “force planning” has often been used interchangeably with “defence planning” and “operational planning”. Defence planning is a much broader term and operational planning is conducted for specific, NATO-agreed operations. The Defence Policy and Planning Committee The Defence Policy and Planning Committee (DPPC) oversees the force planning process. It is the senior decision-making body on matters relating to the integrated military structure of the Alliance. It reports directly to the North Atlantic Council (NAC), provides guidance to NATO's military authorities and, in its reinforced format, oversees the defence planning process, of which force planning is a constituent activity. Resource planning The large majority of NATO resources are national. NATO resource planning aims to provide the Alliance with the capabilities it needs, but focuses on the elements that are jointly or commonly funded, that is to say where members pool resources within a NATO framework. In this regard, resource planning is closely linked to operational planning, which aims to ensure that the Alliance can fulfill its present and future operational commitments and fight new threats such as terrorism and weapons of mass destruction. There is a distinction to be made between joint funding and common funding: joint funding covers activities managed by NATO agencies, such as the NATO Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) and NATO pipelines; common funding involves three different budgets: the civil budget, the military budget, and the NATO Security Investment Programme. Relatively speaking, these budgets represent a small amount of money, but they are key for the cohesion of the Alliance and the integration of capabilities. The Resource Policy and Planning Board The Resource Policy and Planning Board (RPPB) is the senior advisory body to the North Atlantic Council on the management of all NATO resources. It has responsibility for the overall management of NATO’s civil and military budgets, as well as the NATO Security Investment Programme (NSIP) and manpower. Armaments planning Armaments planning focuses on the development of multinational (but not common-funded) armaments programmes. It promotes cost-effective acquisition, co-operative development and the production of armaments. It also encourages interoperability, and technological and industrial co-operation among Allies and Partners. The Conference of National Armaments Directors (CNAD) The Conference of National Armaments Directors (CNAD) is the senior NATO committee responsible for Alliance armaments cooperation, material standardization and defence procurement. It brings together the top officials responsible for defence procurement in NATO member and Partner countries to consider the political, economic and technical aspects of the development and procurement of equipment for NATO forces, with the aim of arriving at common solutions. Logistics planning Logistics planning in NATO aims at ensuring responsive and usable logistics support to NATO operations. This is achieved by promoting the development of military and civil logistics capabilities and multinational cooperation in logistics. The Logistics Committee The Logistics Committee is the senior advisory body on logistics at NATO. Its overall mandate is two-fold: to address consumer logistics matters with a view to enhancing the performance, efficiency, sustainability and combat effectiveness of Alliance forces; and to exercise, on behalf of the North Atlantic Council, an overarching coordinating authority across the whole spectrum of logistics functions within NATO. Nuclear planning The aim of nuclear policy and planning is to promote the maintenance of a credible nuclear deterrent and force posture, which meets the requirements of the current and foreseeable security environment. Nuclear planning must ensure that the Alliance's nuclear posture is perceived as a credible and effective element of NATO's strategy of war prevention. As such, its overall goal is to ensure security and stability at the lowest possible level of forces. NATO has developed an adaptive nuclear planning capability. Accordingly, nuclear forces are not directed towards a specific threat nor do they target or hold at risk any country. In addition, the formulation of the Alliance’s nuclear policy involves all NATO countries (except France), including non-nuclear Allies. The Nuclear Planning Group The Nuclear Planning Group takes decisions on the Alliance’s nuclear policy, which is kept under constant review and modified or adapted in light of new developments. C3 planning The effective performance of NATO's political and military functions requires the widespread utilization of both NATO and national Consultation, Command and Control (C3) systems, services and facilities, supported by appropriate personnel and NATO-agreed doctrine, organizations and procedures. C3 systems include communications, information, navigation and identification systems as well as sensor and warning installation systems, designed and operated in a networked and integrated form to meet the needs of NATO. Individual C3 systems may be provided by NATO via common funded programmes or by members via national, multi-national or joint-funded co-operative programmes. C3 planning is responsive to requirements, as and when they appear, so there is no established C3 planning cycle. However, activities are harmonized with the cycles of the other associated planning disciplines where they exist. The Consultation, Command and Control (C3) Board The Consultation, Command and Control Board is a senior multinational body acting on behalf of and responsible to the NAC on all matters relating to C3 issues throughout the Organization. This includes interoperability of NATO and national C3 systems, as well as advising the CNAD on C3 cooperative programmes. Civil emergency planning Civil emergency planning in NATO aims to collect, analyse and share information on national planning activity to ensure the most effective use of civil resources for use during emergency situations, in accordance with Alliance objectives. It enables Allies and Partners to assist each other in preparing for and dealing with the consequences of crisis, disaster or conflict. The Civil Emergency Planning Committee The Civil Emergency Planning Committee is the top advisory body for the protection of civilian populations and the use of civil resources in support of NATO objectives. Air defence planning Air defence planning enables members to harmonize national efforts with international planning related to air command and control and air defence weapons. NATO integrated air defence (NATINAD) is a network of interconnected systems and measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action. A NATO Active Layered Theatre Ballistic Missile Defence (ALTBMD) programme has been initiated to enhance the existing NATINAD system, particularly against theatre ballistic missiles. The Air Defence Committee (ADC) The Air Defence Committee advises the North Atlantic Council and the relevant Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council bodies on all elements of air defence, including missile defence and relevant air power aspects. It promotes harmonization of national efforts with international planning related to air command and control and air defence weapons. Air Traffic management NATO's role in civil-military air traffic management is to ensure, in cooperation with other international organizations, safe access to airspace, effective delivery of services and civil-military interoperability for air operations conducted in support of the Alliance's security tasks and missions while minimizing disruption to civil aviation, already constrained by the limited capacity of systems and airports, and mitigating the cost implications of new civil technologies on defence budgets. The Air Traffic Management Committee (ATMC) The ATMC is the senior civil-military advisory body to the NAC for airspace use and air traffic management. The committee’s mission is to develop, represent and promote NATO’s view on matters related to safe and expeditious air operations in the airspace of NATO areas of responsibility and interest. Standardization At NATO, standardization is the process of developing shared concepts, doctrines, procedures and designs to achieve and maintain the most effective levels of “compatibility, interchangeability and commonality” in operations, procedures, materials, technology and administration. The primary products of this process are Standardization Agreements (STANAGS) between member countries. The Committee for Standardization The Committee for Standardization is the senior authority of the Alliance responsible for providing coordinated advice to the NAC on overall standardization issues. Intelligence Intelligence plays an important role in the defence planning process, in particular with the emergence of multidirectional and multidimensional security challenges such as terrorism and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Improved intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance as well as strategic warning and assessment capacity for NATO are essential to ensure maximum warning and preparation time to counter military and terrorist attacks. Intelligence sets out the requirements for the improved provision, exchange and analysis of all-source political, economic, security and military intelligence, and closer coordination of the intelligence producers within the Alliance. The Intelligence Steering Board The Intelligence Steering Board acts as an inter-service coordination body responsible for steering intelligence activities involving the International Staff and the International Military Staff and for providing effective support to the decision-making process at NATO Headquarters. It is tasked, among others, with developing the Strategic Intelligence Requirements from which any capability requirements are derived. The Military Intelligence Committee It is responsible for developing a work plan in particular in the areas of NATO Intelligence Support to Operations and oversight of policy guidance on military intelligence. Medical support Medical support is normally a national responsibility, however planning needs to be flexible to consider multinational approaches. The degree of multinationality varies according to the circumstances of the mission and the willingness of countries to participate. The Committee of the Chiefs of Military Medical Services in NATO (COMEDS) COMEDS is composed of the senior military medical authorities of member countries. It acts as the central point for the development and coordination of military medical matters and for providing medical advice to the Military Committee. Research and Technology NATO promotes and conducts cooperative research and information exchange to support the effective use of national defence research and technology and further the military needs of the Alliance. The Research and Technology Board (RTB) The RTB is an integrated NATO body responsible for defence research and technological development. It provides advice and assistance to the CNAD, as well as to the Military Committee. It coordinates research and technology policy in different NATO bodies and is supported by a specialized NATO Research and Technology Agency. Evolution of defence planning within NATO Article 5 operations and automaticity In essence, defence planning existed during the Cold War but "operational planning", in the sense that we now know it, did not. This was because it was the task of force (and nuclear) planning to identify all the forces required to implement the collective defence war plans and members were expected to assign and employ the requested forces virtually without question. These war plans were, in effect, the only "operational plans" of the era. Non-article 5 operations and force generation When, after the Cold War, the Alliance started to get involved in non-Article 5 operations, the situation had to change. Since these missions are, by agreement, case-by-case and the provision of national forces is discretionary, the automaticity of availability associated with force planning during the Cold War period was lost. This led to the requirement for "force generation conferences" to solicit the necessary forces and "operational planning" to develop the plans. Existing processes were adjusted so that "defence planning" disciplines no longer focused exclusively on meeting collective defence requirements and the needs of a largely “fixed” operational concept. Forces, assets, capabilities and facilities had to be capable of facing threats posed by failed states, ethnic rivalry, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and terrorism among others. In fact, acknowledging the ever-changing situation and recognizing the benefits of harmonization and coordination, the existing procedures were reviewed on a regular basis and adjusted as appropriate. In practical terms, there was no standard defence planning process or defence planning cycle per se. Each one of the then seven principal disciplines was managed by a different NATO body and applied special procedures. They also contributed differently to the overall aim of providing the Alliance with the forces and capabilities to undertake the full range of its missions. Introducing greater integration and harmonization With the differences between the various components of the defence planning process and interrelated disciplines, the need for harmonization and coordination was essential. While force planning had provided, to a certain extent, a basis for this harmonization and coordination, at the Istanbul Summit NATO leaders concluded that more was required. They directed the Council in Permanent Session to produce comprehensive political guidance in support of the Strategic Concept for all Alliance capabilities issues, planning disciplines and intelligence, responsive to the Alliance's requirements. They also directed that the interfaces between the respective Alliance planning disciplines, including operational planning, should be further analyzed. A new process and working methodology were introduced in 2009: the NATO Defence Planning Process (NDPP). It aimed to improve the harmonization of the planning domains, including their related committee structure and staffs, and encourages member countries to harmonize and integrate their national defence planning activities so as to complement NATO efforts. In his introductory remarks to defence ministers in June 2009, the then NATO Secretary General, Jaap de Hoop Scheffer, underlined: “If successfully implemented, the NDPP will mark the most profound change to defence planning in decades and has a very high potential to deliver tangible practical results”. Work on the comprehensive political guidance and a suitable management mechanism to ensure its implementation was completed mid-2009. Efforts to enhance and coordinate defence planning are not limited to the remit of the Alliance. NATO and the European Union discuss this topic in the EU-NATO Capability Group, which aims to develop the capability requirements common to both organizations. These initiatives build on the “EU and NATO: Coherent and Mutually Reinforcing Capability Requirements” document. The introduction of NDPP is currently in its first “transitional” cycle and much has been learned which will influence subsequent cycles in a continuous improvement approach which is expected to lead to increasing integration, efficiency and effectiveness.
  • Defence Policy and Planning Committee
    Defence Policy and Planning Committee The Defence Policy and Planning Committee (DPPC) is the senior advisory body to the North Atlantic Council on defence matters concerning all member countries and it also has the lead on defence aspects of Partnership. It is a key committee bringing together defence counsellors from all national delegations.  It deals with a broad range of issues such as transformation, defence capabilities, agency reform, common-funded acquisition and missile defence, and in Reinforced format (DPPC(R)) it manages the NATO Defence Planning Process. Chairmanship is flexible depending on the topics being discussed, but the DPPC’s permanent Chairman is the Assistant Secretary General for Defence Policy and Planning; in Reinforced format  it is chaired by the Deputy Secretary General of NATO. The deputy chairman is the Deputy Assistant Secretary General of the Defence Policy and Planning Division. This committee has been called the DPPC since the June 2010 committee reform. It replaced both the Executive Working Group and the Defence Review Committee. It has no subordinate committees under its remit.
  • Defense College, NATO
    NATO Defense College The NATO Defense College in Rome offers strategic-level courses on politico-military issues designed to prepare selected personnel for NATO and NATO-related appointments. The College also provides senior NATO officials with fresh perspectives on issues relevant to the Alliance by drawing on the ideas of top academics, experts and practitioners, and through reports from conferences and workshops that focus on the major issues challenging the Alliance. Virtually all of the College’s activities are open to participants from the Partnership for Peace and Mediterranean Dialogue countries, and they may also include participants from countries in the broader Middle East region in the framework of the Istanbul Cooperation Initiative. The College was established in Paris in 1951 and was transferred to Rome in 1966. Core objectives and activities The organization of the College The evolution of the College Core objectives and activities The College’s mission is to contribute to the effectiveness and cohesion of the Alliance by developing its role as a major centre of education, study and research on transatlantic security issues. The main educational activity of the College is the Senior Course, which is attended by up to 90 course members selected by their own governments on a national quota basis. These members are either military officers holding the rank of colonel or lieutenant colonel, or civilian officials of equivalent status from relevant government departments or national institutions. In line with guidance issued to the College by the North Atlantic Council and NATOs Military Committee in 2002, the College focuses its efforts on three core areas: education, outreach and research. Education Most course members go on to staff appointments in NATO commands or national NATO-related posts in their own countries. Great importance is attached to the achievement of consensus among the course members during their preparatory work and discussions, reflecting the importance of the principle of consensus throughout NATO structures. Also, the College has a non-attribution rule that allows students to speak their minds freely, knowing that their views will not be repeated outside the confines of the College “family”. Parts of the Senior Course are designed to be taken as modular short courses which allow selected officers and officials from NATO Headquarters and from the strategic commands to join the Senior Course for one week to study a particular strategic theme. In addtion to the courses, daily lectures are given by visiting academics, politicians, high-ranking military and civil servants. Outreach In 1991, the College introduced a two-week course for senior officers and civilians from the members of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, now the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE). The following year, the course became an Integrated Partnership for Peace (PfP)/OSCE Course within the framework of the Senior Course. As an integral part of NATO’s PfP programme, this two-week course aims to develop a common perception of the Euro-Atlantic region among the college’s regular Senior Course members and representatives from PfP/OSCE and NATO’s Mediterranean Dialogue countries. Research The College has significantly upgraded its work in the field of research. It aims to provide senior NATO officials with fresh perspectives, drawing on the ideas of top academics, experts and practitioners, through reports based on conferences and workshops that focus on the major issues challenging the Alliance. In addition, the College organizes an International Research Seminar on Euro-Atlantic Security every year, in cooperation with an academic institution from one of the PfP countries. A similar International Research Seminar with Mediterranean Dialogue Countries also takes place annually. Each year the College offers research fellowships in the field of security studies to two nationals from PfP countries and two from Mediterranean Dialogue countries. This programme aims to promote individual scholarly research on topics relating to Euro-Atlantic, Eurasian and Mediterranean security issues. The organization of the College The College comes under the direction of the Military Committee, which appoints the commandant of the College for a period of three years. The commandant is an officer of at least lieutenant general rank or equivalent. He is assisted by a civilian dean and a military director of management provided by the host country. The Chairman of the Military Committee chairs the College’s Academic Advisory Board. The College faculty is composed of military officers and civilian officials, normally from the foreign and defence ministries of NATO member countries. The evolution of the College In 1951, US General Dwight D. Eisenhower, NATO’s first Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR), first perceived the need to identify officers and officials in the then embryonic NATO who were capable of adapting themselves to the new security environment in Europe. On 25 April 1951, he wrote: "...There is a high priority requirement to develop individuals, both on the military and civilian side, who will have a thorough grasp of the many complicated factors which are involved in the problem of creating an adequate defense posture for the North Atlantic Treaty area. The venture upon which we are now embarked is so new to all of us, and the problems which it raises are on such a different scale from those which have hitherto confronted the member nations, that we are continually faced with a necessity for exploring new approaches and for broadening our points of view. This means we must constantly be on the lookout for individuals who are capable of adapting themselves to this new environment and who find it possible, in a reasonably short time, to broaden their outlook and to grasp the essentials of this challenging problem sufficiently to shoulder the responsibilities inherent in this new field." His vision was translated into the founding of the NATO Defense College in Paris, and Course Number 1 was inaugurated on 19 November 1951. The College quickly made a name for itself as an establishment where NATO's senior officials learnt how to operate effectively in high-level, multinational staffs. Move to Rome The College continued in Paris until 1966, when President Charles de Gaulle decided that France would withdraw from NATO's integrated military structure and the College was required to move. Italy offered temporary accommodation in an office block in the EUR area of Rome. These premises served the College for more than 30 years. In the 1990s it became increasingly clear that a new building was required: one that would be in keeping with the standing the College had acquired within NATO and the international academic world. Italy offered to provide such premises and work began on the construction of a purpose-built College in the Military City of Cecchignola. The College moved in during the summer of 1999 and the inauguration of the new facilities took place on 10 September. Over the years, some 7,000 senior officers, diplomats, and officials have passed through the College in preparation for working on Alliance-related issues.
  • Delegations to NATO, National -
    National delegations to NATO Each NATO member country has a delegation at NATO Headquarters in Brussels, Belgium. The delegation has a status similar to that of an embassy. It is headed by an “ambassador” or “permanent representative”, who acts on instructions from his or her capital and reports back to the national authorities. With all the delegations in the same building, they are able to maintain formal and informal contacts with each other, as well as with NATO's International Staff, International Military Staff and representatives of Partner countries, each of which are entitled to have a mission at NATO Headquarters. Effectively, a delegation’s function is two-fold: to represent its country’s government and contribute to the consultation process, which allows NATO to take collective decisions or actions. Delegations can vary in size and are principally staffed with civil servants from the ministries of foreign affairs and defence. Roles and responsibilities Representing its member country The responsibility and task of each delegation is to represent its member country at NATO. The authority of each delegation comes from its home country's government. It acts on instruction from its capital and reports back on NATO decisions and projects. Each member country is represented on every NATO committee, at every level. At the top, each member country is represented on the North Atlantic Council, the principal political decision-making body within NATO, by an ambassador. The ambassadors are supported by their national delegation, composed of advisers and officials who represent their country on different NATO committees, subordinate to the North Atlantic Council. Delegations can also be supported by experts from capitals on certain matters. Contributing to the consultation process An important function of the delegations at NATO Headquarters is to contribute to the consultation process. Consultation among the delegations can take place in many forms, from the exchange of information and opinions to the communication of actions or decisions which governments have already taken or may be about to take and which have a direct or indirect bearing on the interests of their allies. Consultation is ultimately designed to enable member countries to arrive at mutually acceptable agreements on collective decisions or on action by the Alliance as a whole. The participants The delegation is headed by an ambassador, who is appointed by his/ her government for a period ranging between one to eight years. The staff of the delegation varies in size from about six (Iceland) to 200 (United States). It comprises civil servants from the ministries of foreign affairs, the ministry of defence and other relevant ministries. The International Staff and International Military Staff at NATO Headquarters support the work of the delegations. As set out in the "Agreement on the Status of NATO, National Representatives and International Staff" (signed at Ottawa in 1951), all members of national delegations shall enjoy the same immunities and privileges as diplomatic representatives. These include: immunity from personal arrest or detention; immunity from legal process in respect of words spoken or written or acts done in an official capacity; and inviolability for all papers and documents. A full list of privileges and immunities can be found in Article XIII of the agreement.
  • Deputies Committee (DPRC)
    Deputies Committee The Deputies Committee (DPRC) deals with cross-cutting issues ranging from strategic and political oversight of areas, such as HR policy and the new Headquarters, to committee reform, as well as acting as “trouble-shooting committee” for those issues on which no consensus can be achieved in the competent committee. The DPRC reports directly to the North Atlantic Council. As its name indicates, it is composed of the Deputy Permanent Representatives of each member country and is chaired, according to the topic under discussion, by the Assistant Secretary General of the relevant IS Division or his/her Deputy. The Deputies Committee is supported by the Political Affairs and Security Policy Division, which has overall coordinating responsibility of its activities. It was created in 2010 in the framework of the NATO Committee Review, as a successor to the Senior Political Committee.
  • Disarmament, arms control and non-proliferation in NATO
    Arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation in NATO NATO has a long-standing commitment to an active policy in arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation. The Alliance continues to pursue its security objectives through these policies, while at the same time ensuring that its collective defence obligations are met and the full range of its missions fulfilled. Allies participate actively in international arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation treaties and agreements. NATO itself does not belong to any treaty as an entity but it continues to encourage its members, partners and other countries to implement their international obligations fully. NATO’s policies in these fields cover consultation and practical cooperation in a wide range of areas. These include conventional arms control; nuclear policy issues; promoting mine action and combating the spread of small arms and light weapons (SALW), munitions and man-portable air defence systems (MANPADS); preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and developing and harmonizing capabilities to defend against chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) threats. Arms control and disarmament are key elements of the Euro-Atlantic security architecture. Over the past two decades, Allies have significantly contributed to more stable international relations at lower levels of military forces and armaments, through effective and verifiable arms control agreements. At the Bucharest Summit in 2008, Allied leaders took note of a report on raising NATO’s profile in the fields of arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation. As part of a broader response to security issues, they agreed that NATO should continue to contribute to international efforts in these fields and keep these issues under active review. Subsequently these commitments were reaffirmed in the Strasbourg/Kehl Declaration in 2009 and the Lisbon Declaration in 2010.  Definitions While often used together, the terms arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation do not mean the same thing. In fact, experts usually consider them to reflect associated, but different areas in the same discipline or subject. Arms control Arms control is the broadest of the three terms and generally refers to mutually agreed-upon restraints or controls (usually between states) on the research, manufacture, or the levels of and/or locales of deployment of troops and weapons systems. Disarmament Disarmament, often inaccurately used as a synonym for arms control, refers to the act of eliminating or abolishing weapons (particularly offensive arms) either unilaterally (in the hope that one’s example will be followed) or reciprocally. Non-proliferation For the Alliance, “non-proliferation refers to all efforts to prevent proliferation from occurring, or should it occur, to reverse it by any other means than the use of military force.”¹ Non-proliferation usually applies to Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD), which the Alliance defines as a weapon that is "capable of a high order of destruction and of being used in such a manner as to destroy people, infrastructure or other resources on a large scale." WMD Proliferation Attempts made by state or non-state actors to develop, acquire, manufacture, possess, transport, transfer or use nuclear, chemical or biological weapons or devices and their means of delivery or related material, including precursors, without prejudice to the rights and obligations of the States Parties to the following agreements: the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction (CWC) and the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction (BTWC). According to NATO’s Comprehensive, Strategic-Level Policy for Preventing the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) and Defending Against Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Threats. The ways in which NATO effectively participates NATO contributes to arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation in many ways: through its policies, its activities and through its member countries. Conventional forces Allies have reduced their conventional forces significantly from Cold War levels. Allies remain committed to the regime of the Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) Treaty.  As a response to Russia`s unilateral “suspension” of its Treaty obligations in 2007, NATO CFE Allies have ceased implementing certain Treaty obligations vis-à-vis Russia in November 2011, while still continuing to implement fully their obligations with respect to all other CFE states parties. Allies stated that these decisions are fully reversible should Russia return to full implementation. At the Chicago Summit in May 2012, Allies reiterated their commitment to conventional arms control and expressed their determination to preserve, strengthen and modernise the conventional arms control regime in Europe, based on key principles and commitments. Nuclear forces NATO is committed to the goal of creating the conditions for a world without nuclear weapons – but reconfirms that, as long as there are nuclear weapons in the world, NATO will remain a nuclear Alliance. However, it will do so at the lowest possible level and with an appropriate mix of nuclear and conventional forces. The nuclear weapons committed to NATO have been reduced by more than 95 percent since the height of the Cold War. NATO nuclear weapon states have also reduced their nuclear arsenals and ceased production of highly-enriched uranium or plutonium for nuclear weapons. All Allies are parties to the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) and view it as an essential foundation for international peace and security. Armed forces Through its cooperation framework with non-member countries, the Alliance supports defence and security sector reform, emphasizing civilian control of the military, accountability, and restructuring of military forces to lower, affordable and usable levels. Small arms and light weapons (SALW), and mine action Allies are working with non-member countries and other international organizations to support the full implementation of the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in SALW in All its Aspects. NATO also supports mine action activities. All NATO member countries, with the exception of the United States, are party to the 1997 Mine Ban Treaty, often referred to as the Ottawa Convention. NATO’s PfP Trust Fund Policy was initiated in 2000 to assist countries in fulfilling their Ottawa Convention obligations to dispose of stockpiles of anti-personnel landmines. The policy was later expanded to include efforts to implement the UN Programme of Action on SALW. More recently, the Trust Policy has also been expanded to include projects addressing the consequences of defence reform. NATO/PfP Trust Funds may be initiated by a NATO member or partner country to tackle specific, practical issues linked to these areas. They are funded by voluntary contributions from individual NATO allies, partners, contact countries and organizations. Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) “With due respect to the primarily military mission of the Alliance, NATO will work actively to prevent the proliferation of WMD by State and non-State actors, to protect the Alliance from WMD threats should prevention fail, and be prepared for recovery efforts should the Alliance suffer a WMD attack or CBRN event, within its competencies and whenever it bring added value, through a comprehensive political, military and civilian appoach.”² NATO stepped up its activities in this area in 1999 with the launch of the WMD Initiative and the establishment of a WMD Centre at NATO Headquarters the following year. NATO Allies have also taken a comprehensive set of practical initiatives to defend their populations, territory and forces against potential WMD threats. As part of NATO outreach to Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) partners, Mediterranean Dialogue Countries, Istanbul Cooperation Initiative Countries and other partner countries, the NATO Conference on Arms Control, Disarmament and Non-Proliferation is the only annual conference, sponsored by an international organization, dealing with all types and aspects of weapons of mass destruction. Of particular importance is NATO’s outreach to and cooperation with the United Nations (UN), the European Union (EU), other regional organizations and multilateral initiatives that address WMD proliferation. NATO’s Comprehensive, Strategic-Level Policy for Preventing the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) and Defending Against Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Threats, Para 4. The evolution of NATO’s contribution to arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation Active policies in arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation have been an inseparable part of NATO’s contribution to security and stability since the Harmel Report of 1967. The Harmel Report This report formed the basis for NATO’s security policy. It outlined two objectives: maintaining a sufficient military capacity to act as an effective and credible deterrent against aggression and other forms of pressure while seeking to improve the East-West relations. The Alliance’s objectives in arms control have been tied to the achievement of both aims. It is therefore important that defence and arms control policies remain in harmony and are mutually reinforcing. The Comprehensive Concept of Arms Control and Disarmament In May 1989, NATO adopted a Comprehensive Concept of Arms Control and Disarmament, which allowed the Alliance to move forward in the sphere of arms control. It addressed the role of arms control in East-West relations, the principles of Alliance security and a number of guiding principles and objectives governing Allied policy in the nuclear, conventional and chemical fields of arms control. It clearly set out the interrelationships between arms control and defence policies and established the overall conceptual framework within which the Alliance sought progress in each area of its arms control agenda. The Alliance’s Strategic Concept NATO’s continued adherence to this policy was reaffirmed in the 2010 Strategic Concept (with regard to nuclear weapons): “It [This Strategic Concept] commits NATO to the goal of creating the conditions for a world without nuclear weapons – but reconfirms that, as long as there are nuclear weapons in the world, NATO will remain a nuclear Alliance.” The Strategic Concept, adopted at the Lisbon Summit in November 19-20 November 2010 continues, on a more general note: “NATO seeks its security at the lowest possible level of forces. Arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation contribute to peace, security and stability, and should ensure undiminished security for all Alliance members. We will continue to play our part in reinforcing arms control and in promoting disarmament of both conventional weapons and weapons of mass destruction, as well as non-proliferation efforts”. Summit declarations Allied leaders have reiterated this commitment in declarations made at previous summit meetings held in Washington (1999), Istanbul (2004), Riga (2006), Bucharest (2008), and in Strasbourg-Kehl (2009).  At the Strasbourg-Kehl Summit NATO’s Heads of State and Government endorsed NATO’s Comprehensive, Strategic-Level Policy for Preventing the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) and Defending Against Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Threats. The subject of arms control is also embedded in the 1997 NATO-Russia Founding Act and in the declaration made by Allied and Russian leaders at the 2002 Rome Summit, which set up the NATO-Russia Council. NATO bodies dealing with these issues A number of NATO bodies oversee different aspects of Alliance activities in the fields of arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation. Overall political guidance is provided by the North Atlantic Council, NATO’s highest political decision-making body. More detailed oversight of activities and policy in specific areas is provided by a number of bodies, including the High Level Task Force (HLTF) on Conventional Arms Control, the Nuclear Planning Group High Level Group (NPG/HLG), the Committee on Proliferation (CP) in politico-military as well as in defence format. Within NATO’s cooperative frameworks, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (in particular, the Ad Hoc Working Group on Small Arms and Light Weapons and Mine Action) and the NATO-Russia Council (in particular, the Arms Control, Disarmament, Non-Proliferation (ADN) format) have central roles.