The Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) Treaty
Since the CFE Treaty’s entry into force in 1992, the destruction of over 100.,000 pieces of treaty-limited equipment (tanks, armoured personnel carriers, artillery, attack helicopters and combat aircraft) has been verified and almost 6,000 on-site inspections have been conducted, thereby reaching its objective of creating balance and mitigating the possibility of surprise conventional attacks within its area of application.
At the first CFE Review Conference in 1996, negotiations began to adapt the CFE Treaty to reflect the realities of the post-Cold War era. This process was completed in conjunction with the OSCE Summit in Istanbul in 1999. States Parties also agreed to additional commitments, called the Istanbul Commitments. Although the Adapted CFE Treaty (ACFE) went far in adjusting the Treaty to a new security environment it was not ratified by Allied countries because of the failure of Russia to fully meet commitments regarding withdrawal of Russian forces from Georgia and the Republic of Moldova, on which Allies’ agreement to the adapted Treaty was based.
At NATO summits and ministerial meetings since 2000, the Allies have reiterated their commitment to the CFE Treaty and have reaffirmed their readiness and commitment to ratify the Adapted Treaty. However, during the third CFE Review Conference, in June 2006, Russia expressed its concerns regarding ratification of the adapted CFE Treaty and claimed that even the ACFE was outdated.
After the June 2007 Extraordinary Conference of the States Parties to the CFE Treaty, the Russian President signed legislation on 14 July 2007 to unilaterally “suspend” its legal obligations under the CFE Treaty as of 12 December 2007. In response to these events, NATO offered a set of constructive and forward-looking actions..
In 2008 and 2009 consultations were held between the United States on behalf of the Alliance and Russia, but with limited development. Further efforts to resolve the impasse were pursued on the basis of United States’ initiative, which sought an agreement on a framework for negotiations on a modernised CFE Treaty, in consultations at 36 between all CFE states parties and NATO member states not parties to the CFE Treaty. The process stalled in the autumn of 2011 because of the lack of agreement among parties.
In a situation where no agreement could be reached to overcome the impasse, towards the end of November 2011, NATO CFE Allies announced their decisions to cease implementing certain CFE obligations vis-à-vis Russia, while still continuing to implement fully their obligations with respect to all other CFE states parties. However, in the December 2011 foreign ministerial communiqué, Allies stated that these decisions were fully reversible should the Russian Federation return to full implementation.
At the Chicago Summit in May 2012, Allies reiterated their commitment to conventional arms control and expressed determination to preserve, strengthen and modernise the conventional arms control regime in Europe, based on key principles and commitments.
The Vienna Document
Similarly, under the Vienna Document, thousands of inspections and evaluation visits have been conducted as well as airbase visits and visits to military facilities; also new types of armament and equipment have been demonstrated to the participating states of the Vienna Document. With an aim to reflect the contemporary security policy environment an updated version of the Vienna Document known as the Vienna Document 2011 was approved by the OSCE in December 2011.
The Open Skies Treaty
Under the Open Skies Treaty, more than 850 observation missions have been conducted since the treaty’s entry into force in January 2002. Aerial photography and other material from observation missions provide transparency and support verification activities carried out on the ground under other treaties. This treaty provides for extensive cooperation regarding the use of aircraft and their sensors, thereby adding to openness and confidence. Following long lasting negotiations the states parties to the Open Skies Treaty agreed, at the 2010 review conference, to allow the use of digital sensors in the future. However these have to undergo a certification process, as foreseen by the Open Skies Treaty . This decision secures the future relevance of the treaty, adds to its efficiency and reduces implementation costs.
The UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) in All Its Aspects
The Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council’s (EAPC) Ad Hoc Working Group on SALW and Mine Action contributes to international efforts to address the illicit trade in SALW and encourages international efforts to fully implement the UN Programme of Action. It also encourages mine action efforts.
The UN Programme of Action (UN PoA) was adopted in July 2001 by nearly 150 countries, including all NATO member countries and contains concrete recommendations for improving national legislation and controls over illicit small arms, fostering regional cooperation and promoting international assistance and cooperation on the issue. It was developed and agreed as a result of the growing realisation that most present-day conflicts are fought with illicit small arms and light weapons, and that their widespread availability has a negative impact on international peace and security, facilitates violations of international humanitarian law and human rights, and hampers economic and social development. It includes measures at the national, regional and global levels, in the areas of legislation, destruction of weapons that were confiscated, seized, or collected, as well as international cooperation and assistance to strengthen the ability of states in identifying and tracing illicit arms and light weapons. Every two years, the UN hold the Biennial Meeting of States to Consider the Implementation of the Programme of Action (BMS). National delegations from all member states gather every six years to review the progress made in implementation of the Programme of Action. The International Staff participated in this review on behalf of the EAPC in August 2012
The EAPC Working Group on SALW and Mine Action has supported mine action efforts through its guest speaker program by inviting numerous mine action experts to share their expertise with the Group. These speakers have hailed from national mine action centers, NGOs and international organizations and have included high profile experts, such as Nobel Laureate Ms. Jody Williams, Director of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines. The Working Group intensified its focus on mine action, also incorporating issues related to explosive remnants of war and cluster munitions onto its agenda, during the second half of 2010, wherein all regular Working Group meetings were dedicated to this subject.
The Convention on Cluster Munitions
The Convention on Cluster Munitions (CCM) prohibits all use, stockpiling, production and transfer of cluster munitions. Separate articles in the Convention concern assistance to victims, clearance of contaminated areas and destruction of stockpiles. It became a legally binding international instrument when it entered into force on 1 August 2010.
The Arms Trade Treaty
In July of 2012, UN member states gathered in New York to negotiate an arms trade treaty that would establish high common standards for international trade in conventional arms. Despite the efforts put forth by delegations during the four weeks of negotiations, the Conference could not reach agreement on a treaty text. Governments are now considering the next steps to conclude the negotiations in the not-so-distant future. This Treaty is intended to establish common international standards for the import, export and transfer of conventional arms. NATO stands ready to support the Arms Trade Treaty process as appropriate.
NATO/PfP Trust Fund projects
The NATO/Partnership for Peace Trust Fund mechanism was established in 2000 to assist partner countries with the safe destruction of stocks of anti-personnel land mines. It was later extended to include the destruction of surplus munitions, unexploded ordnance and small arms and light weapons, and assisting partner countries in managing the consequences of defence reform. So far, 4.2 million landmines, 31,000 tonnes of various munitions, 2 million hand grenades, 2 million sub munitions, 1100 MANPADS, and 427,000 SALW alongside 108 million rounds of SALW ammunition have been destroyed.
Trust Fund projects are initiated by a NATO member or partner country and funded by voluntary contributions from individual allies, partners, contact countries, and organisations.