|The United Nations Charter is signed at San Francisco.
||France and the United Kingdom sign a 50-year Treaty
of Alliance and Mutual Assistance at Dunkirk.
|President Truman delivers his message to Congress
urging the United States of America 'to support free peoples who
are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside
pressure' (Truman Doctrine) and requesting the appropriation of
direct financial aid to Greece and Turkey.
||General of the Army George C. Marshall, United States
Secretary of State, speaking at Harvard, announces a plan for the
economic rehabilitation of Europe. This speech initiated the action
which led to the European Recovery Programme.
||Mr. Ernest Bevin, United Kingdom Secretary of State
for Foreign Affairs, speaking in the House of Commons, proposes
a form of Western Union.
|The Communist Party in Czechoslovakia gains control
of the government in Prague through a coup d'etat.
||The Brussels Treaty - a 50-year treaty of economic,
social and cultural collaboration and collective self-defence -
is signed by the Foreign Ministers of Belgium, France, Luxembourg,
the Netherlands and the United Kingdom.
|Secretary of State Marshall and Under Secretary Robert
A. Lovett begin exploratory conversations with Senator Arthur H.
Vandenberg and Senator Tom Connally on security problems of the
North Atlantic area.
|The Convention for European Co-operation is signed
by the Foreign Ministers of sixteen European countries and by the
Commanders-in-Chief of the Western Zones of Occupation in Germany.
The OEEC was set up under Article 1 of the Convention.
||The United States Senate adopts Resolution 239, known
as the 'Vandenberg Resolution'.
||Mr. Lovett and the Ambassadors in Washington of the
Brussels Treaty Powers and of Canada begin discussions about North
||The Defence Ministers of the Brussels Treaty Powers
decide to create a Western Union Defence Organization.
||The'Consultative Council of the Brussels Treaty Powers
announce 'complete agreement on the principle of a defensive pact
for the North Atlantic and on the next steps to be taken in this
|Negotiations on the drafting of the North Atlantic
Treaty open in Washington between the representatives of the Brussels
Treaty Powers, Canada and the United States.
||The negotiating Powers invite Denmark, Iceland, Italy,
Norway and Portugal to adhere to the North Atlantic Treaty.
||The text of the North Atlantic Treaty is published.
||The Soviet Government presents a memorandum to the
twelve prospective signatories claiming that the Treaty is contrary
to the United Nations Charter and to the decisions of the Council
of Foreign Ministers.
|The twelve governments repudiate the Soviet assertions
in a common note.
|| The North Atlantic Treaty is signed in Washington
by the Foreign Ministers of Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland,
Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, United Kingdom
and United States.
April 8 Texts published of requests by the Brussels Treaty Powers,
Denmark, Italy and Norway for United States military and financial
August 24 The North Atlantic Treaty enters into effect upon the
deposit in Washington of the final instruments of ratifications.
||North Atlantic Council, first session, Washington
(Chairman: Mr. Dean Acheson, United States).
|| Mutual Defence Assistance Act of 1949 is signed by
|| North Atlantic Council, second session, Washington
(Chairman: Mr. Acheson).
|| North Atlantic Council, third session, Washington
(Chairman: Mr. Acheson).
|| President Truman approves the plan for the integrated
defence of the North Atlantic area, thus releasing $ 900,000,000
of military aid funds.
|| The French Government proposes the creation of a
single authority to control the production of steel and coal in
France and Germany, open for membership to other countries (Schuman
||North Atlantic Council, fourth session, London (Chairman:
|| North Korean forces attack the Republic of South
||Council Deputies, First Meeting, London. Ambassador
Charles M. Spofford, United States Deputy Representative to the
North Atlantic Council, is elected Permanent Chairman.
||Announcement is made in Ankara that the Turkish Government
has decided to make formal application for Turkey's adhesion to
the North Atlantic Treaty.
||North Atlantic Council, fifth session. New York (Chairman:
||North Atlantic Council, fifth session. New York (continued).
||Turkey accepts Council invitation to be associated
with the military agencies of NATO in Mediterranean defence planning.
||Greece accepts Council invitation to be associated
with Mediterranean defence planning,
| October 24
||French Prime Minister, M. Rene Pleven, outlines to
the National Assembly his plan for a European unified army, including
German contingents, within the framework of NATO (Pleven Plan).
||The NATO Defence Committee discusses the methods by
which Germany might participate in the defence of Western Europe,
and refers the political and military aspects of the problem to
the Council Deputies and Military Committee respectively for further
|| North Atlantic Council, sixth session, Brussels (Chairman:
M. Paul van Zeeland, Belgium).
||The Council appoints General Dwight D. Eisenhower
(United States) Supreme Allied Commander Europe. The Foreign Ministers
of France, the United Kingdom and the United States, acting on the
invitation of the North Atlantic Council at their sixth session,
authorise the Allied High Commissioners in Western Germany to open
discussions with the Federal Republic on a possible German contribution
to the defence of Western Europe (Petersberg negotiations).
||The Consultative Council of the Brussels Treaty Powers
decide to merge the military organization of the Western Union into
the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
|The French Government announces it will convene a
Conference to discuss the European Army Plan. Conference on the
setting up of a European Army opens in Paris.
||General Eisenhower issues General Order No. 1 activating
Allied Command Europe, and the Supreme Headquarters, Allied Powers
||Representatives of Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg,
Netherlands and the Federal Republic of Germany sign a joint declaration
formally setting up the European Coal and Steel Community.
||The Council Deputies announce important changes in
the top structure of NATO, namely the incorporation by the North
Atlantic Council of the Defence Committee and the Defence Financial
and Economic Committee. The Council thus become the sole Ministerial
body of the Organization.
|| An agreement between the Parties to the North Atlantic
Treaty on the Status of their Forces (Military Status Agreement)
is signed in London by the Council Deputies on behalf of their governments.
|| The Petersberg negotiations are suspended.
|| The Paris Conference approves an interim report to
governments, recommending the creation of a European Army. General
Elsenhower agrees to co-operate in working out the military problems.
|| North Atlantic Council, seventh session, Ottawa (Chairman;
M. van Zeeland).
|| Agreement signed in Ottawa on the Status of NATO,
National Representatives and International Staff (Civilian Status
|| Temporary Council Committee (TCC), first session,
Paris. Executive Bureau (Three Wise Men) established.
|| Protocol to the North Atlantic Treaty on the accession
of Greece and Turkey is signed in London by the Council Deputies
acting on behalf of their governments.
||Inauguration of the NATO Defence College, Paris.
|| North Atlantic Council, eighth session, Rome (Chairman:Mr.
L. B. Pearson, Canada).
|| Council Deputies, acting on behalf of the Council,
appoint Vice-Admiral LyndeD.McCormick (United States) Supreme Allied
Commander Atlantic (SACLANT)
|| Greece and Turkey acceed to the North Atlantic Treaty.
February 20-25 North Atlantic Council, ninth session, Lisbon (Chairman;
||The Council decide to establish a Channel Command
and appoint Admiral Sir Arthur John Power Commander-in-Chief.
|| Announcement is made of the appointment of Lord Ismay,
the United Kingdom Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations,
as Vice-Chairman of the North Atlantic Council, and Secretary General
of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
|| Third anniversary of the signing of the Treaty. Lord
Ismay takes office and the North Atlantic Council assume responsibility
for the tasks hitherto performed by the Council Deputies, the Defence
Production Board and the Economic and Financial Board, the international
staffs serving those agencies being amalgamated into one organization
with headquarters in Paris.
|| Activation of Headquarters, Supreme Allied Commander
|| NATO opens its provisional Headquarters at the Palais
de Chaillot, Paris.
|The North Atlantic Council, now in permanent session,
hold their first meeting in Paris. Appoint General Matthew B. Bidgway
(United States) Supreme Allied Commander Europe, to succeed General
|The Foreign Ministers of Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg,
the Netherlands and the German Federal Republic sign in Paris the
Treaty setting up the European Defence Community.
||Representatives of the North Atlantic Treaty governments
sign a Protocol to the Treaty on Guarantees given by the Parties
to the North Atlantic Treaty to the members of the European Defence
Community. North Atlantic Council meet in Ministerial session in
Paris (Chairman: Mr. Ole Bjem Kraft, Denmark).
||A Treaty of 'friendship and collaboration' is signed
in Ankara between Greece, Turkey and Yugoslavia.
|| North Atlantic Council meet in Ministerial session
in Paris (Chairman: Lord Ismay).
|The North Atlantic Council appoint General Alfred
M. Gruenther (United States) to succeed General Ridgway as Supreme
Allied Commander Europe.
||Lord Ismay attends the Bermuda Conference (France,
the United Kingdom, the United States) as observer for NATO.
|| The North Atlantic Council meet in Ministerial session
in Paris (Chairman: M. Georges Bidault, France).
||The North Atlantic Council appoint Admiral Jerauld
Wright (United States) to succeed Admiral McCormick as Supreme Allied
|| North Atlantic Council meet in Ministerial session
in Paris (Chairman: M. Bidault, France).
||Opening of the Geneva Conference, convened by France,
the United Kingdom, the USSR and the United States for the purpose
of reaching a settlement of the Korean problem and of considering
the question of the re-establishment of peace in Indo-China.
|| In their reply to a Soviet note of March 31, France,
the United Kingdom and the United States reject the USSR's bid to
join the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
|| Meeting, at The Hague, of the Constituent Conference
of the Atlantic Treaty Association, sponsored by the International
Atlantic Committee (representing pro-NATO voluntary organizations).
The constitution of the Association is agreed upon.
||M. Pierre Mendes France, French Prime Minister and
Minister for Foreign Affairs, becomes Chairman of the North Atlantic